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Table 4 Chronic effects of restricted calorie diets with varying amount of fats on low grade inflammation in obese and overweight individuals

From: Modulation of obesity-induced inflammation by dietary fats: mechanisms and clinical evidence

Subjects: n (F/M) Design Dietary intervention Inflammatory response Remarks References
Overweight: 15 (-/15) Crossover: 6-week VLCKD 60% en total fat, 10% en CHO, 30% en protein Unlimited type of fat or cholesterol amount from sources such as beef, poultry, fish, oils, various nuts/seeds, moderate amount of vegetables, salads with low-carbohydrate dressings, moderate amount of cheese, eggs, protein powder, water/ low-carbohydrate diet drinks, low-carbohydrate bars and shakes *Customied diabetic exchange lists were used. TNF-α, IL-6, hsCRP, sICAM-1: both VLCKD & LFD ↓ vs baseline: NS
sP-sel: NS
Body weight: VLCKD ↓ 6.5 kg, LFD ↓3.7 kg
Protein intake not standardised across diets [84]
   LFD 25% en fat, 55% en CHO, 20% en protein (< 10% SFA, < 300 mg cholesterol)    
Overweight: 20 Parallel: 12-week VLCKD
60% en fat 10% en CHO 30% en protein Unlimited amount of beef, poultry, fish, eggs, oils and heavy creams; moderate amount of hard cheeses, low-carbohydrate vegetables and salad dressings; small amount of nuts, nut butters and seeds.
TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, sICAM-1 PAI-1: both VLCKD & LFD ↓ vs baseline; VLKCD ↓↓
IL-6, CRP, VEGF, P-sel, EGF and sVCAM-1: both VLCKD & LFD ↓ vs baseline; NS
Protein intake not standardised across diets
Dyslipidemic subjects were included
25% en fat, 55% en CHO, 20% en protein (< 10% SFA, < 300 mg cholesterol) Whole grains (bread, cereals and pastas), fruit/fruit juices, vegetables, vegetables oils, low at dairy, and lean meat products
*Standard diabetic exchange lists were used.
Body weight: VLCKD ↓ 5.6 kg, LFD ↓3.7 kg   
  1. VLCKD, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet; LFD, low fat diet; CHO, carbohydrate; % en, percentage energy; SFA, saturated fats; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; IL, interleukin; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; sP-sel, soluble P-selectin; MCP-1, monochemoattractant protein-1; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor; sVCAM-1,soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; NS, no significant difference between diets; ↓, reduced concentrations; ↓↓, greater reduction compared to the other diets.