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Table 3 Chronic effects of the type of dietary fats on low grade inflammation in obese or overweight individuals

From: Modulation of obesity-induced inflammation by dietary fats: mechanisms and clinical evidence

Subjects: n (F/M) Design Dietary intervention Inflammatory response Remarks References
Overweight/obese: 14 (14/-) Crossover; 3-week, 1 week wash-out PUFA
40% en total fat (25% en PUFA, 8.5% en SFA)
Fat from vegetable sources
CRP: PUFA↓ vs baseline
IL-18: NS vs baseline
Small sample size
Dyslipidemic and postmenopausal women were recruited
[74]
   SFA
42% en total fat (29% en SFA, 3% en PUFA)
Dairy and animal fats
*No comparison was made between diets Short dietary intervention  
   Iso-caloric diet (2738 kcal) with ~21% en exchange between PUFA and SFA    
Abdominally overweight: 61 (gender not specified)
n-6 PUFA:32 SFA: 29
Parallel; 10-week n-6 PUFA
40% en total fat (10% en SFA, 13.5% en LA)
Scones (baked using sunflower oil), margarine, sunflower oil and sunflower seeds
IL-1RA, TNF-R2: n-6 PUFA↓ vs SFA
CRP, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10: NS
Subjects used antihypertensive and lipid lowering drugs. [75]
   SFA
40% en total fat (20% en SFA, 4% en LA)
Scones (baked using butter), butter and butter
  Low compliance: n-6 PUFA diet (n = 27); SFA diet (n = 19)  
   Iso-caloric diet (2000 kcal) consisted with 10% en exchange between n-6 PUFA and SFA. Key fat sources were provided    
Overweight and obese: 76 (63/13)
Krill: 25 (22/3) Menhaden: 26 (21/5) Control:25 (20/5)
Parallel; 4-week Krill oil: 90 mg DHA + 216 mg EPA
Menhaden oil: 178 mg DHA + 212 mg EPA
Control: 2 g olive oil
4 x 500 mg capsules/day for each supplementation
hsCRP: NS Habitual diet was not controlled [78]
Sedentary overweight: 138 (93/45) Parallel: 4-month n-3 PUFA: 2.5 g/day
Fish oil (6 x 500 mg capsules/d);EPA:DHA ratio is 7:1
TNF-α, IL-6: both doses ↓ vs placebo; NS Calorie and fatty acid composition of habitual diets were not standardized [79]
n-3 PUFA 2.5 g/day: 46 (29/17)
n-3 PUFA: 1.25 g/day: 46 (28/18)
Placebo: 46 (36/10)
  n-3 PUFA: 1.25 g/day
Placebo: 3 g
Mixture of palm, olive, soy, canola and cocoa butter oils; (SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratio = 37:42:21)
   
Severely obese:55 (46/9) n-3 PUFA: 27 (23/4) Control: 28 (23/5) Parallel: 8-week n-3 PUFA: 4 x 1 g capsules/day (3.36 g EPA + DHA)
Control: 5 g butterfat
IL-6: n-3 PUFA ↓
hsCRP: NS
30 subjects used supplementary medication such as antihypertension and proton pump inhibitors
Incomplete dietary records
[82]
   Iso-caloric diet consisted of 30% en fat, 15% protein and 55% en carbohydrate SAT gene expression of CCL2, CCL3, H1F1A and TGFB1: n-3 PUFA ↓   
    EPA- and DHA-derived eicosanoids synthesis in SAT and VAT: n-3 PUFA ↑   
Abdominally overweight/ obese: 51 (40/11) Parallel: 8-week ALA: 11 g/day flaxseed oil
Control: habitual diet
IL-6, TNF-α, CRP: NS   [83]
ALA: 27 (21/6) Control: 24 (19/5)   Iso-caloric diet (~2000 kcal) with a balance of SFA and MUFA intake    
  1. % en, percentage energy; IL-1RA, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; TNF-R2, tumor necrosis factor- receptor 2; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; ALA, alpha linolenic acid; SFA, saturated fats; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; VAT, visceral adipose tissue; SAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue; CCL, chemokine (C-C) motif ligand; HIF1A, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha; TGFB1, transforming growth factor β1; NS, no significant difference between diets; ↓, reduced concentrations; ↑, increased concentrations.