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Table 1 Acute effects of the amount of dietary fats on inflammatory response in obese or overweight individuals

From: Modulation of obesity-induced inflammation by dietary fats: mechanisms and clinical evidence

Subjects: n (F/M) Postprandial duration Test meal Inflammatory response in overweight/obese individuals Remarks References
Lean: 10 (-/10) Obese: 10 (-/10) T2DM: 10 (-/10) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 h HFM: 57.5 g fat (29 g SFA)
A bacon and egg muffin, 2 hash browns, caramel flavored milk drink (250 ml of 4% fat milk, 4 teaspoons skim milk powder and 1 teaspoon caramel flavor)
IL-6, hsCRP: HFM ↑ over time; NS
TNF-α: =; NS
Total adiponectin: HFM ↑ over time; NS
HMW adiponectin: =; NS
Sample size was calculated based on the changes of adiponectin, but not other markers [62]
   Water (control)   Small sample size  
Lean: 14 (14/-); obese: 15 (15/-) 0, 1, 4, 6 h SFA: 71 g fat (18 g palmitate)
Instant potato with 16 g cream/kg body weight, 100 ml hot water
IL-6: ↓ at 1 h, ↑ at 6 h; NS
IL-8, TNF-α: =; NS
Timing of menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive usage were not taken into account [16]
   MUFA: 72 g fat (9 g palmitate )
Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of olive oil, 160 ml hot water
  Subjects with hypertension and dyslipidemia were included  
   n-6 PUFA:72 g fat (5 g palmitate)
Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of canola oil, 160 ml hot water
  Test meals were not iso-caloric
Small sample size.
 
   LFM–potato: 12 g fat (3 g palmitate)
Instant potato, 160 ml hot water.
   
   LFM – bran: 13 g fat (3 g palmitate)
All-Bran, 40 ml trim milk, and 2 cooked eggs
   
   *test meals for obese subjects only    
Obese: 38 (-/38) 0, 4, 8 h 60 g fat/m2 body surface
Eggs, cheese, toast, peanut 7, whipped cream, peaches and milk
IL-6: ↑ at 6 h
TNF-α: ↓ at 4 h
Control not included [63]
Overweight: 15 (2/13) 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 h 82 g fat (36.9 g SFA)
Fried potatoes, fried eggs, Emmenthal cheese, Italian rose-shaped dinner rolls, with 500 ml of low sugar content beverage
IL-6, TNF-α: ↑ over time Small sample size
Control not included
Short postprandial period
[64]
Lean: 10 (5/5); Obese: 8 (5/3) 0, 1, 2, 3 h HFM, 60 g fat
Big Mac, large French fries, a large Coke, and apple pie
ROS generation and NF-κB binding : ↑ over time Small sample size
Short postprandial period
Control not included
[15]
  1. HFM, high fat meal; LFM, low fat meal; SFA, saturated fats; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; % en, percentage energy; IL, interleukin; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; HMW, high molecular weight; AUC, area under the curve; ROS, reactive oxygen species; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-β; ↓, reduced postprandial concentrations; ↑, increased postprandial concentrations; =, no postprandial/after meal effect; ↑↑, higher postprandial increment compared to other meals; NS, no significant difference between meals.