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Table 4 Coefficients from multiple regression analysis between total B vitamins intake and neuropsychological test scores according to AD, MCI and normal groups

From: Association between intake of B vitamins and cognitive function in elderly Koreans with cognitive impairment

Total Intakes   MMSE-KC Boston naming test Verbal fluency Word list memory Word list recall Word list recognition Constructional recall Constructional praxis
All (n = 321) 20.6 ± 5.9 8.4 ± 3.5 9.4 ± 4.7 11.5 ± 5.5 3.1 ± 2.5 6.5 ± 3.0 3.7 ± 3.2 7.9 ± 2.7
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.581 (0.265) 0.376 (0.170) 0.182 (0.245) 0.284 (0.255) −0.055 (0.126) 0.192 (0.162) 0.079 (0.161) 0.190 (0.129)
p- value 0.029 0.028 0.458 0.266 0.664 0.237 0.625 0.143
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.609 (0.323) 0.647 (0.205) 0.317 (0.298) 0.395 (0.310) −0.067 (0.153) 0.294 (0.197) 0.008 (0.196) 0.202 (0.157)
p-value 0.060 0.002 0.288 0.204 0.664 0.137 0.969 0.201
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) 0.288 (0.173) 0.160 (0.111) 0.131 (0.159) 0.306 (0.164) 0.002 (0.082) 0.073 (0.106) 0.089 (0.105) 0.163 (0.085)
p-value 0.098 0.150 0.413 0.063 0.979 0.490 0.397 0.055
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 1.358 (0.553) 0.573 (0.357) 0.574 (0.512) 1.165 (0.530) 0.211 (0.264) 0.412 (0.339) 0.768 (0.333) 0.047 (0.271)
p-value 0.015 0.110 0.263 0.029 0.425 0.226 0.022 0.863
AD (n = 100)         
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 1.040 (0.426) 0.783 (0.347) 0.835 (0.411) 0.882 (0.418) 0.089 (0.154) 0.683 (0.360) 0.436 (0.172) 0.391 (0.289)
p-value 0.017 0.027 0.045 0.038 0.566 0.061 0.013 0.180
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) 1.476 (0.526) 1.213 (0.425) 1.393 (0.502) 1.521 (0.508) 0.251 (0.191) 1.113 (0.441) 0.652 (0.211) 0.734 (0.356)
p-value 0.006 0.005 0.007 0.004 0.191 0.014 0.003 0.042
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) 0.656 (0.247) 0.448 (0.200) 0.417 (0.244) 0.487 (0.245) 0.003 (0.092) 0.138 (0.215) 0.252 (0.099) 0.425 (0.167)
p-value 0.010 0.028 0.090 0.050 0.978 0.524 0.012 0.013
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 0.619 (0.765) 0.059 (0.622) 0.946 (0.725) 0.378 (0.745) 0.203 (0.269) 0.129 (0.639) 0.683 (0.303) −0.226 (0.509)
p-value 0.420 0.925 0.196 0.614 0.452 0.840 0.027 0.657
MCI (n = 100)          
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.666 (0.400) 0.561 (0.275) 0.699 (0.373) 0.519 (0.428) 0.106 (0.213) 0.159 (0.257) 0.043 (0.258) 0.214 (0.220)
p-value 0.010 0.045 0.065 0.229 0.620 0.537 0.870 0.334
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.761 (0.497) 1.008 (0.331) 0.569 (0.467) 0.332 (0.532) −0.014 (0.264) 0.258 (0.318) −0.067 (0.319) 0.080 (0.273)
p-value 0.129 0.003 0.227 0.534 0.959 0.420 0.835 0.769
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) −0.187 (0.265) −0.035 (0.191) 0.398 (0.252) 0.191 (0.272) −0.080 (0.140) 0.106 (0.171) −0.107 (0.173) −0.119 (0.150)
p-value 0.482 0.855 0.117 0.485 0.569 0.535 0.538 0.430
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 2.155 (0.920) 0.951 (0.648) 1.330 (0.876) 2.231 (0.977) 0.577 (0.494) 0.936 (0.592) 0.780 (0.595) −0.040 (0.515)
p-value 0.021 0.146 0.132 0.025 0.246 0.118 0.193 0.938
Normal (n = 121)         
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.358 (0.320) −0.076 (0.250) −0.436 (0.401) −0.195 (0.385) −0.147 (0.204) −0.073 (0.197) −0.158 (0.287) 0.225 (0.183)
p-value2) 0.266 0.761 0.279 0.613 0.472 0.710 0.584 0.220
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.151 (0.373) 0.057 (0.290) −0.230 (0.467) −0.040 (0.446) −0.121 (0.236) −0.047 (0.228) −0.366 (0.332) 0.180 (0.213)
p-value 0.686 0.843 0.623 0.929 0.609 0.836 0.272 0.400
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) 0.115 (0.224) −0.093 (0.168) −0.273 (0.270) −0.020 (0.268) −0.008 (0.141) −0.154 (0.134) −0.027 (0.199) 0.246 (0.125)
p-value 0.609 0.579 0.054 0.942 0.957 0.254 0.892 0.051
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 0.455 (0.585) 0.042 (0.561) −1.425 (0.895) 0.348 (0.864) −0.358 (0.457) −0.313 (0.441) 0.057 (0.646) 0.470 (0.410)
p-value 0.438 0.941 0.114 0.688 0.435 0.479 0.930 0.255
  1. Data on intake are log transformed. Adjusted for age, gender, BMI, marital status, education, current smoking, energy intake (ln), thyroid disease and vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke and cardiovascular disease).