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Table 2 The laboratory characteristics of the study subjects (n = 40) before and after one week of oral creatine supplementation

From: Effects of dietary creatine supplementation on systemic microvascular density and reactivity in healthy young adults

Characteristics Before Creatine After Creatine p value
Homocysteine (μmol/L) 10.5 (8.2-13.0) 10.1 (8.8-12.3) 0.4434
Uric acid (mg/dL) 4.9 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2 0.0004
Urea (mg/dL) 34.5 ± 1.5 35.7 ± 2.0 0.2482
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.92 ± 0.02 1.03 ± 0.03 0.0001
CK-MB (U/L) 18.0 (11.5-25.0) 18.0 (13.0-27.0) 0.7601
CK-MM (U/L) 253 (146-567) 344 (128-653) 0.0296
Troponin (ng/mL) 0.0017 ± 0.0006 0.0029 ± 0.0010 0.4082
AST (U/L) 33.6 ± 1.8 36.4 ± 2.3 0.1718
ALT (U/L) 31.1 ± 2.6 30.1 ± 2.1 0.4380
Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 200.0 (159.5-335.0) 215.0 (166.0-315.5) 0.5694
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 59.0 (53.0-76.0) 58.0 (49.5-77.0) 0.5875
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 282 (256-306) 254 (227-284) 0.0177
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 67.0 (56.6-91.5) 65.0 (51.5-91.0) 0.7420
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 174.0 (143.5-204.0) 174.0 (140.0-197.5) 0.0486
HDL-C (mg/dL) 43.3 ± 1.8 44.6 ± 2.1 0.1999
LDL-C (mg/dL) 115.0 (88.0-142.5) 103 (81.0-130.0) 0.0027
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 86.5 ± 1.0 86.0 ± 1.4 0.7298
Glycated hemoglobin (%) 5.3 ± 0.07 5.3 ± 0.09 0.7980
hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.07 (0.04-0.19) 0.07 (0.04-0.18) 0.7645
Total protein (g/dL) 7.3 ± 0.06 7.2 ± 0.07 0.0282
Albumin (g/dL) 4.2 ± 0x.04 4.2 ± 0.04 0.6203
Globulins (g/dL) 3.1 ± 0.06 3.0 ± 0.08 0.0588
TSH (μUI/mL) 2.1 (1.4-3.0) 2.1 (1.5-2.7) 0.4788
T3 (ng/dL) 1.08 ± 0.03 1.02 ± 0.03 0.0074
T4 (ng/dL) 1.08 ± 0.02 1.1 ± 0.02 0.0003
  1. The results are presented as the mean ± SEM. For values that did not follow a Gaussian distribution, the medians (25th - 75th percentile) are presented (Shapiro-Wilk normality test).
  2. HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CK-MB: Creatine Kinase-MB; CK-MM: Creatine Kinase-MM; AST: Aspartate transaminase; ALT: Alanine transaminase; hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone; T3: triiodothyronine; T4: thyroxine.
  3. p values were estimated using two-tailed unpaired Student’s t tests or Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests, as appropriate.
  4. Bold values denote significant differences.