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Table 2 Associations between breastfeeding and psychiatric and behavioral outcomes

From: Protective effect of breastfeeding with regard to children’s behavioral and cognitive problems

  Breastfeeding (N = 522) Non-breastfeeding (N = 352) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  N, % N, % AORa(95 % CI) p AORb(95 % CI) p AORc(95 % CI) p
ADHD 19 (3.7) 23 (6.6) 2.01 (1.07-3.79) 0.031 1.81 (0.95-3.43) 0.072 1.78 (0.93-3.41) 0.083
Internalizing problems 17 (3.3) 26 (7.5) 2.45 (1.30-4.60) 0.005 2.30 (1.22- 4.31) 0.010 2.31 (1.22-4.37) 0.010
Externalizing problems 12 (2.3) 17 (4.9) 2.20 (1.03-4.70) 0.042 1.82 (0.86-3.85) 0.117 1.96 (0.87-4.41) 0.105
Overall behavioral problems 10 (1.9) 20 (5.8) 3.36 (1.53-7.34) 0.002 3.02 (1.38-6.62) 0.006 2.87 (1.28-6.42) 0.010
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, area of residence, and yearly family income.
  2. bAdjusted for age, gender, area of residence, yearly family income, and child’s IQ.
  3. cAdjusted for age, gender, area of residence, yearly family income, child’s IQ, and maternal IQ.