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Table 5 Changes in eating behaviors in men and women

From: Gender differences in the long-term effects of a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean diet: changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviors, anthropometric and metabolic variables

  Men Women Gender effect Time effect Gender x time interaction
Variables Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline
  P P P
Dietary restraint        0.07 0.88 0.83
  Baseline 5.9 3.2 - 6.9 4.1 -    
  T = 3 months 7.4 3.9 25.4* 7.6 3.9 10.1    
  T = 6 months 8.0 4.7 35.6* 7.3 3.3 5.8    
  T = 9 months 8.4 5.2 42.4* 7.4 3.5 7.2    
Flexible restraint        0.10 0.41 0.55
  Baseline 1.9 1.4 - 2.4 1.6 -    
  T = 3 months 2.4 1.5 26.3* 2.8 1.6 16.7    
  T = 6 months 2.7 1.7 42.1* 2.8 1.4 16.7    
  T = 9 months 3.0 1.9 57.9* 2.8 1.5 16.7    
Rigid restraint        0.43 0.88 0.19
  Baseline 1.7 1.3 - 1.8 1.7 -    
  T = 3 months 1.8 1.5 5.9 1.9 1.6 5.6    
  T = 6 months 2.2 1.9 29.4* 1.8 1.4 0.0    
  T = 9 months 2.2 1.8 29.4* 1.9 1.5 5.6    
Disinhibition        0.11 0.58 0.42
  Baseline 6.0 2.8 - 6.2 2.8 -    
  T = 3 months 4.9 2.3 −18.3* 5.3 3.0 −14.5    
  T = 6 months 4.9 2.2 −18.3* 5.3 2.6 −14.5    
  T = 9 months 4.8 2.2 −20.0* 5.4 3.0 −12.9    
Habitual susceptibility to disinhibition        0.03 0.75 0.39
  Baseline 0.7 1.0 - 0.7 1.0 -    
  T = 3 months 0.4 0.8 −42.9* 0.6 1.0 −14.3    
  T = 6 months 0.4 0.6 −42.9* 0.4 0.8 −42.9    
  T = 9 months 0.2 0.4 −71.4* 0.4 0.8 −42.9    
Situational susceptibility to disinhibition        0.09 0.77 0.80
  Baseline 3.0 1.4 - 2.5 1.5 -    
  T = 3 months 2.3 1.3 −23.3* 2.0 1.5 −20.0    
  T = 6 months 2.3 1.5 −23.3* 2.1 1.4 −16.0    
  T = 9 months 2.2 1.5 −26.7* 2.1 1.6 −16.0    
Emotional susceptibility to disinhibition        0.23 0.22 0.75
  Baseline 0.7 1.0 - 1.6 1.2 -    
  T = 3 months 0.7 1.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 −25.0*    
  T = 6 months 0.7 0.9 0.0 1.2 1.2 −25.0    
  T = 9 months 0.7 1.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 −25.0    
Hunger        0.32 0.81 0.64
  Baseline 4.8 3.0 - 4.2 2.8 -    
  T = 3 months 3.3 2.4 −31.3* 3.0 2.7 −28.6*    
  T = 6 months 3.5 2.7 −27.1* 3.0 2.5 −28.6*    
  T = 9 months 3.4 3.0 −29.2* 3.2 2.8 −23.8    
Internal hunger        0.53 0.68 0.35
  Baseline 1.9 1.8 - 1.6 1.6 -    
  T = 3 months 1.2 1.4 −36.8* 0.9 1.4 −43.8*    
  T = 6 months 1.3 1.5 −31.6* 1.0 1.6 −37.5    
  T = 9 months 1.2 1.7 −36.8* 1.1 1.6 −31.3    
External hunger        0.57 0.66 0.12
  Baseline 1.9 1.5 - 1.8 1.4 -    
  T = 3 months 1.1 1.3 −42.1* 1.4 1.3 −22.2    
  T = 6 months 1.4 1.4 −26.3 1.1 1.1 −38.9*    
  T = 9 months 1.4 1.4 −26.3* 1.4 1.2 −22.2    
  1. For T = 0, T = 3, T = 6 and T = 9 months, n =63, 57, 49, 44 men and n =59, 50, 45, 44 women, respectively.
  2. In men, T = 0: flexible restraint and internal hunger, n =60 and external hunger, n =62; T = 3 months: dietary restraint, flexible restraint and rigid restraint, disinhibition and habitual susceptibility to disinhibition, internal and external hunger, n =56; T = 6 months: flexible restraint and external hunger, n =48; T = 9 months: habitual susceptibility to disinhibition and external hunger, n =43.
  3. In women, T = 0: flexible restraint, habitual susceptibility to disinhibition, internal and external hunger, n =58 and rigid restraint, n =57; T = 3 months: flexible restraint and internal and external hunger, n =49 and rigid restraint, n =48; T = 6 months: flexible restraint and habitual susceptibility to disinhibition, n =43 and rigid restraint and external hunger, n =44; T = 9 months: rigid restraint, n =43.
  4. SD: Standard deviation.
  5. * P ≤0.05; Significant change within the same gender.
  6. P ≤0.10; Trend for a significant change within the same gender.