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Table 4 Changes in anthropometric and metabolic variables in men and women

From: Gender differences in the long-term effects of a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean diet: changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviors, anthropometric and metabolic variables

  Men Women Gender effect Time effect Gender x time interaction
Variables Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline
  P P P
Body weight (kg)        0.13 0.71 0.67
  Baseline 96.6 15.5 - 77.9 16.2 -    
  T = 3 months 95.2 14.4 −1.4* 77.2 17.1 −0.9    
  T = 6 months 94.5 12.4 −2.2* 78.1 17.5 0.3    
  T = 9 months 94.2 13.3 −2.5* 77.8 17.5 −0.1    
Body fat (%)        0.12 0.86 0.82
  Baseline 26.7 4.5 - 39.2 6.2 -    
  T = 3 months 25.6 4.6 −4.1* 39.2 6.6 0.0    
  T = 6 months 26.2 5.3 −1.9* 38.9 6.5 −0.8    
  T = 9 months 25.6 5.0 −4.1* 38.4 6.4 −2.0    
Waist circumference (cm)        0.10 0.39 0.05
  Baseline 106.1 10.2 - 95.8 11.5 -    
  T = 3 months 104.2 9.5 −1.8* 94.5 12.6 −1.4*    
  T = 6 months 103.4 8.9 −2.5* 95.0 12.6 −0.8    
  T = 9 months 103.1 9.9 −2.8* 95.9 12.5 0.1    
HDL-C (mmol/l)        0.12 0.06 0.50
  Baseline 1.15 0.22 - 1.44 0.30 -    
  T = 3 months 1.19 0.25 3.5* 1.44 0.28 0.0    
  T = 6 months 1.20 0.25 4.3* 1.41 0.28 −2.1    
  T = 9 months 1.22 0.24 6.1* 1.46 0.31 1.4*    
LDL-C (mmol/l)        0.22 0.86 0.15
  Baseline 3.64 0.69 - 3.65 0.69 -    
  T = 3 months 3.70 0.64 1.6 3.60 0.62 −1.4    
  T = 6 months 3.61 0.65 −0.8 3.71 0.76 1.6    
  T = 9 months 3.58 0.71 −1.6 3.73 0.66 2.2    
Total-C/HDL-C ratio        0.0007 0.18 0.25
  Baseline 5.08 1.01 - 4.16 0.86 -    
  T = 3 months 4.87 0.99 −4.1* 4.06 0.84 −2.4    
  T = 6 months 4.80 0.97 −5.5* 4.22 0.79 1.4    
  T = 9 months 4.60 0.85 −9.4* 4.13 0.78 −0.7    
Triglycerides (mmol/l)        0.03 0.09 0.97
  Baseline 1.89 0.85 - 1.50 0.58 -    
  T = 3 months 1.60 0.66 −15.3* 1.36 0.45 −9.3    
  T = 6 months 1.64 0.70 −13.2* 1.46 0.51 −2.7    
  T = 9 months 1.61 0.98 −14.8* 1.42 0.52 −5.3    
Triglycerides/HDL-C ratio        0.02 0.14 0.98
  Baseline 1.77 0.99 - 1.10 0.49 -    
  T = 3 months 1.44 0.76 −18.6* 0.99 0.42 −10.0    
  T = 6 months 1.49 0.86 −15.8* 1.07 0.44 −2.7    
  T = 9 months 1.47 1.39 −16.9* 1.02 0.42 −7.3    
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)        0.76 0.79 0.27
  Baseline 119.78 14.60 - 109.22 11.24 -    
  T = 3 months 119.28 10.63 −0.4 109.51 11.72 0.3    
  T = 6 months 118.53 11.50 −1.0 111.17 11.61 1.8    
  T = 9 months 120.36 10.02 0.5 109.26 8.96 0.04    
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)        0.52 0.07 0.90
  Baseline 75.59 9.47 - 70.76 7.92 -    
  T = 3 months 72.40 8.48 −4.2* 68.94 8.17 −2.6    
  T = 6 months 73.97 8.97 −2.1 70.19 9.15 −0.8    
  T = 9 months 72.32 7.95 −4.3* 69.04 6.96 −2.4    
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)        0.97 0.39 0.84
  Baseline 5.27 0.55 - 5.16 0.69 -    
  T = 3 months 5.28 0.41 0.2 5.21 0.68 1.0    
  T = 6 months 5.30 0.43 0.6 5.29 1.19 2.5    
  T = 9 months 5.38 0.52 2.1 5.17 0.59 0.2    
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)        0.99 0.41 0.05
  Baseline 100.48 44.99 - 88.53 45.36 -    
  T = 3 months 98.95 44.34 −1.5 88.22 40.27 −0.4    
  T = 6 months 98.70 50.04 −1.8 83.11 36.47 −6.1    
  T = 9 months 85.77 34.17 −14.6 84.25 38.16 −4.8    
  1. For T = 0, T = 3, T = 6 and T = 9 months, n =64, 57, 50, 44 men and n =59, 51, 46, 44 women, respectively.
  2. For percentage of body fat, T = 0, 3, 6 and 9 months: n =52, 47, 50, 45 men and n =48, 41, 44, 43 women, respectively.
  3. For lipid-lipoprotein variables, T = 0, 3, 6 and 9 months: n =63, 56, 48, 41 (n =40 LDL-C) men and n =58, 51, 44, 44 women.
  4. For fasting glucose and insulin, T = 0, 3, 6 and 9 months: n =64, 57, 50, 44 men and n =58, 51, 44, 44 women.
  5. SD: Standard deviation.
  6. *P ≤0.05; Significant change within the same gender.
  7. P ≤0.10; Trend for a significant change within the same gender.