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Table 3 Changes in Medscore and food groups in men and women

From: Gender differences in the long-term effects of a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean diet: changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviors, anthropometric and metabolic variables

  Men Women Gender effect Time effect Gender x time interaction Gender effect adjusted for baseline value
Variables Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline
  P P P P
Medscore (arbitrary units)        0.25 < 0.0001 0.42 0.70
  Baseline 22.7 4.3 - 24.1 3.6 -     
  T = 3 months 27.6 4.7 21.6* 27.2 4.9 12.9*     
  T = 6 months 25.4 4.8 11.9* 25.8 4.2 7.1*     
  T = 9 months 24.6 4.6 8.4* 24.9 5.1 3.3     
Olives (portions/d)        0.77 0.01 0.15 0.96
  Baseline 1.1 1.4 - 1.0 0.9 -     
  T = 3 months 1.5 1.1 36.4 1.6 1.7 60.0*     
  T = 6 months 1.4 1.6 27.3 1.0 0.8 0.0     
  T = 9 months 1.1 0.8 0.0 1.2 1.4 20.0     
Whole fruits (portions/d)       0.04 0.18 0.22 0.68
  Baseline 1.7 1.4 - 2.5 1.5 -     
  T = 3 months 2.6 2.0 52.9* 2.6 1.4 4.0     
  T = 6 months 2.1 1.4 23.5* 2.6 1.4 4.0     
  T = 9 months 2.1 1.6 23.5* 2.6 1.3 4.0     
Whole vegetables (portions/d)      0.13 0.08 0.76 0.62
  Baseline 3.8 1.9 - 4.3 1.4 -     
  T = 3 months 4.3 2.1 13.2* 4.3 1.7 0.0     
  T = 6 months 4.1 1.9 7.9 4.0 1.4 −7.0     
  T = 9 months 3.7 1.6 −2.6 4.0 2.0 −7.0     
Legumes, nuts and seeds (portions/d)      0.16 < 0.0001 0.57 0.002
  Baseline 1.3 1.3 - 0.8 0.6 -     
  T = 3 months 1.9 1.2 46.2* 1.2 0.6 50.0*     
  T = 6 months 1.6 1.0 23.1 0.9 0.5 12.5     
  T = 9 months 1.5 1.1 15.4 0.9 0.5 12.5     
Whole grain products (portions/d)      0.59 0.86 0.36 0.005
  Baseline 3.2 1.7 - 2.3 1.6 -     
  T = 3 months 3.7 1.4 15.6* 2.9 1.3 26.1*     
  T = 6 months 3.8 2.3 18.8* 2.8 1.4 21.7     
  T = 9 months 3.9 2.1 21.9* 2.7 1.3 17.4     
Refined grain products (portions/d)      0.54 0.48 0.07 0.51
  Baseline 3.3 1.8 - 2.7 1.6 -     
  T = 3 months 1.9 1.1 −42.4* 1.9 1.3 −29.6*     
  T = 6 months 2.5 1.9 −24.2* 1.8 1.0 −33.3*     
  T = 9 months 2.2 1.5 −33.3* 2.1 1.2 −22.2*     
Milk and dairy products (portions/d)      0.62 0.54 0.74 0.60
  Baseline 3.1 2.1 - 2.6 1.1 -     
  T = 3 months 2.8 1.8 −9.7 2.4 1.0 −7.7     
  T = 6 months 2.7 1.7 −12.9 2.6 1.4 0.0     
  T = 9 months 2.7 1.1 −12.9 2.6 1.2 0.0     
Poultry (portions/w)       0.94 0.24 0.83 0.12
  Baseline 6.4 4.7 - 4.8 2.9 -     
  T = 3 months 5.3 3.8 −17.2 4.0 2.5 −16.7     
  T = 6 months 4.5 3.6 −29.7* 3.9 2.0 −18.8     
  T = 9 months 5.0 3.3 −21.9 4.0 2.7 −16.7     
Fish and seafood (portions/w)      0.44 0.004 0.95 0.16
  Baseline 4.5 3.5 - 3.8 2.8 -     
  T = 3 months 7.5 5.6 66.7* 6.2 4.0 63.2*     
  T = 6 months 6.8 5.1 51.1* 5.5 3.3 44.7*     
  T = 9 months 6.2 3.7 37.8* 4.8 3.2 26.3     
Red meat/processed meat (portions/w)      0.03 0.0002 0.14 0.83
  Baseline 11.6 6.6 - 8.0 4.7 -     
  T = 3 months 5.6 3.8 −51.7* 4.8 3.1 −40.0*     
  T = 6 months 7.8 6.0 −32.8* 5.7 3.5 −28.8*     
  T = 9 months 7.1 5.3 −38.8* 5.8 3.5 −27.5*     
Eggs (portions/w)       0.21 0.35 0.51 0.01
  Baseline 3.2 2.7 - 2.3 1.7 -     
  T = 3 months 3.3 2.6 3.1 2.1 1.7 −8.7     
  T = 6 months 3.8 3.5 18.8 2.2 1.7 −4.3     
  T = 9 months 3.7 3.0 15.6 2.1 1.9 −8.7     
Sweets (portions/w)       0.95 0.47 0.25 0.23
  Baseline 13.8 33.4 - 9.2 9.1 -     
  T = 3 months 7.3 12.3 −47.1* 6.4 6.0 −30.4     
  T = 6 months 9.3 14.3 −32.6 6.5 5.5 −29.3     
  T = 9 months 7.6 5.9 −44.9 8.6 9.3 −6.5     
  1. For T = 0, T = 3, T = 6 and T = 9 months, n =64, 57, 50, 44 men and n =59, 51, 46, 44 women, respectively.
  2. SD: Standard deviation; d: day; w: week.
  3. *P ≤0.05; Significant change within the same gender.
  4. P ≤0.10; Trend for a significant change within the same gender.
  5. Analysis was performed on transformed values.