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Table 2 Changes in dietary intakes in men and women

From: Gender differences in the long-term effects of a nutritional intervention program promoting the Mediterranean diet: changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviors, anthropometric and metabolic variables

  Men Women Gender effect Time effect Gender x time interaction Gender effect adjusted for baseline value
Variables Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline Mean SD % Change vs. Baseline
  P P P P
Energy intake (kcal)        0.38 0.99 0.84 0.02
  Baseline 3065 896 - 2457 571 -     
  T = 3 months 2768 713 −9.7* 2335 527 −5.0     
  T = 6 months 2757 752 −10.0* 2284 497 −7.0     
  T = 9 months 2759 636 −10.0* 2329 470 −5.2     
Energy density (kcal/g)£        0.02 0.43 0.11 0.71
  Baseline 1.32 0.24 - 1.21 0.17 -     
  T = 3 months 1.21 0.23 −8.3* 1.19 0.17 −1.7     
  T = 6 months 1.25 0.21 −5.3* 1.16 0.17 −4.1     
  T = 9 months 1.26 0.21 −4.5* 1.20 0.17 −0.8     
% Carbohydrates        0.03 0.81 0.74 0.44
  Baseline 42.2 5.3 - 44.5 5.8 -     
  T = 3 months 44.1 5.8 4.5* 44.8 5.5 0.7     
  T = 6 months 43.9 6.3 4.0* 44.9 5.4 0.9     
  T = 9 months 44.4 6.0 5.2* 44.9 5.6 0.9     
Total dietary fibers (g)        0.003 0.008 0.90 0.0005
  Baseline 27.2 9.4 - 25.6 6.3 -     
  T = 3 months 32.8 10.8 20.6* 28.1 7.5 9.8*     
  T = 6 months 30.1 10.7 10.7* 25.1 6.0 −2.0     
  T = 9 months 30.6 11.9 12.5* 25.2 6.2 −1.6     
% Proteins        0.99 0.04 0.67 0.40
  Baseline 18.3 2.5 - 17.8 2.8 -     
  T = 3 months 18.4 2.8 0.5 17.9 2.9 0.6     
  T = 6 months 18.0 3.0 −1.6 17.6 2.3 −1.1     
  T = 9 months 17.9 2.6 −2.2 17.1 2.6 −3.9     
% Lipids        0.01 0.76 0.66 0.25
  Baseline 36.8 4.8 - 35.1 4.5 -     
  T = 3 months 34.6 5.3 −6.0* 34.6 5.2 −1.4     
  T = 6 months 34.8 5.2 −5.4* 34.3 4.8 −2.3     
  T = 9 months 35.1 4.9 −4.6* 35.1 4.8 0.0     
% MUFA        0.07 0.76 0.21 0.58
  Baseline 15.5 2.8 - 14.6 2.7 -     
  T = 3 months 15.1 2.9 −2.6 15.1 3.4 3.4     
  T = 6 months 15.2 2.9 −1.9 14.5 2.4 −0.7     
  T = 9 months 14.9 2.7 −3.9* 15.1 3.3 3.4     
% PUFA        0.93 0.004 0.94 0.10
  Baseline 6.2 1.5 - 5.9 1.4 -     
  T = 3 months 6.8 1.6 9.7* 6.3 1.4 6.8*     
  T = 6 months 6.4 1.5 3.2 5.8 1.1 −1.7     
  T = 9 months 6.5 1.5 4.8 5.9 1.2 0.0     
% SFA        0.002 0.0002 0.67 0.004
  Baseline 12.2 2.7 - 11.8 1.7 -     
  T = 3 months 10.1 2.4 −17.2* 10.5 2.0 −11.0*     
  T = 6 months 10.6 2.4 −13.1* 11.4 2.5 −3.4     
  T = 9 months 11.0 2.4 −9.8* 11.5 2.1 −2.5     
% Trans        0.13 0.05 0.33 0.73
  Baseline 1.4 0.4 - 1.3 0.3 -     
  T = 3 months 1.1 0.4 −21.4* 1.1 0.4 −15.4*     
  T = 6 months 1.2 0.5 −14.3* 1.1 0.3 −15.4     
  T = 9 months 1.3 0.3 −7.1* 1.1 0.3 −15.4     
% Alcohol        0.63 0.14 0.76 0.62
  Baseline 2.7 2.4 - 2.7 2.3 -     
  T = 3 months 2.9 2.6 7.4 2.7 2.1 0.0     
  T = 6 months 3.3 3.1 22.2* 3.1 2.4 14.8     
  T = 9 months 2.6 2.4 −3.7 2.9 2.8 7.4     
  1. For T = 0, T = 3, T = 6 and T = 9 months, n =64, 57, 50, 44 men and n =59, 51, 46, 44 women, respectively.
  2. SD: Standard deviation.
  3. MUFA: Monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: Polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA: Saturated fatty acids; Trans: Trans fatty acids.
  4. *P ≤0.05; Significant change within the same gender.
  5. P ≤0.10; Trend for a significant change within the same gender.
  6. £Including caloric foods and drinks.