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Table 5 Objective and subjective outcome measures captured in the review

From: The effectiveness of melatonin for promoting healthy sleep: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature

Outcome name Shift workers Jet lag Insomnia Initiation of Sleep/Sleep efficacy Daytime sleepiness (occurrence of)/Somnolence Phase shift/hormone changes
Objective measures
Polysomnographic recording (PSG)*; Actigraph*; Saliva samples**; Blood samples**; Electroencephalogram (EEG)*; Accelerometers*; Hours of sleep*; Heart rate/Heart rate variability (HR/HRV)*; Melatonin assays*; Multiple sleep latency test(MSLT)*; Urine samples**; 5- min reaction test* 7 6 2 9 1 9
Subjective measures
Visual Analog Scale (VAS)*; Sleep diaries; Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS)*; Profile of Mood States (POMS)*; Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS)*; Daily Sleep Questionnaire (DSQ); Questionnaire; 7 point Likert Drowsiness Scale; Accumulated Time with Sleepiness Scale (ATS)*; Accumulated Time with Sleepiness Scale (ATS)*; Bond-Lader Questionnaire; Columbia Jet Lag Scale*; Daily Subjective Sleep Experiencing Questionnaire (DSSEQ); Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire*; Linear Sleepiness Rating; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)*; Retrospective ratings; Subjective Sleep Quality Questionnaire; Symptom assessments; Symptom questionnaire 21 24 8 5 6 3
  1. *Validated Measures.
  2. **Objective measures captured to determine melatonin bioavailability but not relevant outcomes of interest to this review.