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Table 1 General characteristics of adults of DISANDNT I/JP (2008-2010)

From: Association between obesity and calcium:phosphorus ratio in the habitual diets of adults in a city of Northeastern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    Total (Men and women) Men Women
    Mean (± SD) Range N (%) Mean (± SD) Range N (%) Mean (± SD) Range N (%)
General and socioeconomic characteristics             
  Gender     506 (100)     105 (20.75)     401 (79.25)
  Age (years) 37.71 (± 11.96) 41.00   36.13 (± 12.62) 41.00   38.20 (± 11.77) 41.00  
  Regular physical activity1             
   Yes     89 (17.59)     33 (31.43)     56 (13.97)
   No     417 (82.41)     72 (68.57)     345 (86.03)
  Educational level 2             
   ≤ High school     392 (77.47)     73 (69.52)     319 (79.55)
   > High school     114 (22.53)     32 (30.48)     82 (20.45)
  Per capita income3             
   < Median     242 (49.90)     39 (39.80)     203 (52.45)
   ≥ Median     243 (50.10)     59 (60.20)     184 (47.55)
Habitual dietary intake of nutrients             
  Ca:P ratio (mg:mg) 0.58 (± 0.17) 0.91   0.59 (± 0.17) 0.72   0.58 (± 0.17) 0.91  
  Ca (mg) 552.09 (± 325.24) 2603.40   670.28 (± 423.19) 2570.40   521.24 (± 287.24) 1624.10  
  P (mg) 927.49 (± 401.66) 2589.90   1086.32 (± 460.92) 2398.70   886.03 (± 374.50) 2589.90  
Habitual dietary consumption of food and food groups4             
  Dairy products (servings) 1.14 (± 0.98) 7.09   1.40 (± 1.23) 7.09   1.08 (± 0.89) 4.15  
   Whole milk (mL) 116.94 (± 140.72) 803.57   160.67 (± 181.37) 803.57   105.65 (± 126.04) 610.00  
   Skim milk (mL) 20.67 (± 71.22) 450.00   15.14 (± 60.88) 450.00   22.10 (± 73.67) 450.00  
   Yogurt (g) 34.81 (± 69.06) 990.00   40.25 (± 115.10) 990.00   33.41 (± 51.01) 495.00  
   Cheese (g) 11.21 (± 12.03) 64.67   12.60 (± 12.23) 52.86   10.85 (± 11.98) 64.67  
   Whole milk (servings) 0.58 (± 0.70) 4.02   0.80 (± 0.91) 4.02   0.53 (± 0.63) 3.05  
   Skim milk (servings) 0.10 (± 0.36) 2.25   0.08 (± 0.30) 2.25   0.11 (± 0.37) 2.25  
   Yogurt (servings) 0.17 (± 0.35) 4.95   0.20 (± 0.58) 4.95   0.17 (± 0.26) 2.48  
   Cheese (servings) 0.28 (± 0.30) 1.62   0.31 (± 0.31) 1.32   0.27 (± 0.30) 1.62  
  Meats (servings) 1.79 (± 1.23) 13.37   1.91 (± 1.18) 6.89   1.76 (± 1.24) 13.34  
   Red meat (g) 89.44 (± 81.76) 1044.29   92.47 (± 77.79) 424.61   88.66 (± 82.85) 1044.29  
   Poultry (g) 50.34 (± 53.50) 664.29   55.38 (± 53.76) 381.43   49.03 (± 53.44) 664.29  
   Fish (g) 22.35 (± 41.70) 712.00   25.83 (± 34.67) 200   21.45 (± 43.34) 712.00  
   Red meat (servings) 1.06 (± 0.97) 12.43   1.10 (± 0.93) 5.05   1.06 (± 0.99) 12.43  
   Poultry (servings) 0.50 (± 0.54) 6.64   0.55 (± 0.54) 3.81   0.49 (± 0.53) 6.64  
   Fish (servings) 0.22 (± 0.42) 3.00   0.26 (± 0.35) 2.00   0.21 (± 0.43) 7.12  
Anthropometric characteristics             
  Weight (kg) 66.47 (± 14.96) 106.00   72.91 (± 16.69) 106.00   64.78 (± 14.01) 85.70  
  Height (m) 1.60 (± 0.09) 0.81   1.70 (± 0.10) 0.71   1.57 (± 0.07) 0.79  
  BMI (kg/m2) 26.04 (± 5.42) 36.26   25.22 (± 4.71) 24.08   26.26 (± 5.58) 36.26  
  BMI classification5             
   Underweight     28 (5.57)     8 (7.69)     20 (5.01)
   Normal weight     201 (39.96)     46 (44.23)     155 (38.85)
   Overweight     163 (32.41)     35 (33.65)     128 (32.08)
   Obesity     111 (22.07)     15 (14.42)     96 (24.06)
  WC (cm) 84.86 (± 13.31) 76.00   87.45 (± 12.61) 68.30   84.19 (± 13.41) 76.00  
  Central obesity based on WC6     159 (31.67)     11 (10.68)     148 (37.09)
  WHtR (cm:cm) 0.53 (± 0.09) 0.43   0.51 (± 0.07) 0.41   0.54 (± 0.09) 0.42  
  Central obesity based on WHtR7     178 (35.53)     24 (23.53)     154 (38.60)
  1. 1 at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week [34]; 2 ≤ high school, corresponding to 12 or fewer years of schooling and > high school, corresponding to more than 12 years of schooling; 3 median of per capita income R$ 325.00 or US$ 580.29; 4 food consumption – servings (BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. Guia Alimentar para a população brasileira, 2006 [39]/USDA. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010) [40]; 5 WHO (1998); 6 NCEP-ATPIII (2002); 7 central obesity WHtR ≥ 0.56 seconds VIEIRA (2009).
  2. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, Ca:P ratio Calcium:phosphorus ratio, Ca Calcium, P Phosphorus, BMI Body mass index, WC Waist circumference, WHtR Waist-to-height ratio.