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Table 4 Associations between low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score and incident all-cause and site-specific cancer in Västerbotten Intervention Programme participants in a subgroup with reduced follow-up until 2002

From: Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study

Cancer type Sex LCHP score1 nCases Model 12,3HR (95% CI) p-trend5 Model 22,4HR (95% CI) p-trend5
All cancer sites Men low 94 1   1  
n = 531   medium 118 1.20 (0.91-1.58)   1.35 (1.01-1.79)  
   high 55 1.05 (0.75-1.46) 0.599 1.25 (0.86-1.80) 0.093
  Women low 82 1   1  
   medium 101 1.10 (0.81-1.47)   1.15 (0.84-1.56)  
   high 81 1.29 (0.95-1.76) 0.049 1.39 (0.98-1.96) 0.020
Prostate cancer Men low 47 1   1  
n = 106   medium 40 0.86 (0.56-1.32)   0.98 (0.63-1.51)  
   high 19 0.80 (0.47-1.38) 0.261 1.01 (0.57-1.80) 0.871
Breast cancer Women low 29 1   1  
n = 91   medium 33 0.98 (0.59-1.62)   1.05 (0.62-1.78)  
   high 29 1.24 (0.74-2.09) 0.210 1.38 (0.77-2.46) 0.100
Colorectum All low 17 1   1  
n = 57   medium 24 1.38 (0.74-2.58)   1.48 (0.77-2.81)  
   high 16 1.58 (0.79-3.13) 0.320 1.76 (0.83-3.73) 0.245
  1. 1 LCHP scores were calculated separately for FFQ version and sex, and categorized into roughly equally sized groups: low (2–8 points), medium (9–13 points) and high (14–20 points).
  2. 2 Hazard ratios were determined by Cox regression analyses.
  3. 3 Including age strata.
  4. 4 Further adjusted for obesity, sedentary lifestyle, lack of postsecondary education, current smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and saturated fat.
  5. 5 p-trend were calculated per 1-point increase in LCHP score.