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Table 3 Associations between low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score and incident all-cause and site-specific cancer in subgroups of participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme based on metabolic risk profile, saturated fat intake, and energy reporting

From: Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study

Cancer type Sex nCases HR1(95% CI) HR1(95% CI) p-heterogeneity2
Metabolic risk profile3   low/high Low High  
All cancer Men 1,251/371 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 0.99 (0.95-1.02) 0.668
  Women 1,182/355 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.000
Prostate cancer Men 549/108 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 0.98 (0.93 -1.03) 0.513
Breast cancer Women 468/113 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 1.02 (0.97-1.07) 0.509
Colorectal cancer Men 142/42 0.98 (0.93-1.02) 1.02 (0.94-1.11) 0.419
  Women 110/35 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 1.04 (0.95-1.14) 0.193
Saturated fat intake 4   low/high Low High  
All cancer Men 817/705 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.01) 1.000
  Women 845/692 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.02) 0.493
Prostate cancer Men 375/282 1.01 (0.98-1.03) 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.363
Breast cancer Women 320/261 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 0.99 (0.96-1.02) 0.363
Colorectal cancer Men 89/95 1.00 (0.95-1.06) 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 0.418
  Women 83/62 1.03 (0.98-1.09) 0.92 (0.87-0.98) 0.003
Energy reporting 5   adequate/inadequate adequate inadequate  
All cancer Men 548/846 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 1.00 (0.98-1.02)  
  Women 440/996 1.00 (0.98-1.03) 1.00 (0.98-1.01) 1.000
Prostate cancer Men 250/353 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.00 (0.97-1.03) 1.000
Breast cancer Women 192/360 0.98 (0.95-1.02) 1.01 (0.98-1.04) 1.000
Colorectal cancer Men 59/108 1.01 (0.94-1.08) 1.00 (0.94-1.04) 0.172
  Women 33/103 1.03 (0.94-1.12) 0.96 (0.92-1.01) 0.837
  1. 1 Hazard ratios per 1-point increase in LCHP score, determined by Cox regression and adjusted for age strata, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, lack of postsecondary education, current smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and saturated fat. Saturated fat intake was not included as a covariate in the subgroup analysis based on saturated fat.
  2. 2 Comparison of subgroup HR by Chi-square test.
  3. 3 Metabolic risk profile defined as having at least one of (high), versus none of (low), obesity, diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.
  4. 4 Stratified at sex-specific medians.
  5. 5 Defined according to the Goldberg cut-off, modified as described previously [19].