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Table 2 Associations between low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score and incident all-cause and site-specific cancer in Västerbotten Intervention Programme participants

From: Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer; a prospective cohort study

Cancer type Sex LCHP score1 n Model 12,3   Model 22,4  
Cases HR (95% CI) p-trend5 HR (95% CI) p-trend5
All cancer sites Men low 545 1   1  
n = 3,059   medium 650 1.12 (1.00-1.25)   1.10 (0.97-1.23)  
   high 327 1.01 (0.88-1.16) 0.678 0.97 (0.83-1.12) 0.973
  Women low 525 1   1  
   medium 596 1.00 (0.89-1.13)   1.00 (0.89-1.13)  
   high 416 1.01 (0.89-1.15) 0.776 1.00 (0.86-1.15) 0.777
Prostate cancer Men low 256 1   1  
n = 657   medium 266 1.02 (0.86-1.21)   1.01 (0.85-1.21)  
   high 135 0.98 (0.79-1.21) 0.671 0.97 (0.78-1.22) 0.588
Breast cancer Women low 195 1   1  
n = 581   medium 232 1.03 (0.85-1.24)   1.04 (0.85-1.28)  
   high 154 0.96 (0.78-1.19) 0.761 1.00 (0.79-1.27) 0.924
<49 y at diagnosis Women low 30 1   1  
n = 104   medium 49 1.15 (0.73-1.81)   1.26 (0.77-2.06)  
   high 25 0.85 (0.50-1.45) 0.948 1.04 (0.57-1.89) 0.343
>55 y at diagnosis Women low 73 1   1  
n = 184   medium 71 1.03 (0.74-1.42)   1.07 (0.76-1.50)  
   high 40 0.96 (0.65-1.41) 0.975 1.02 (0.67-1.55) 0.707
Colorectum Men low 66 1   1  
n = 329   medium 75 1.08 (0.78-1.51)   1.02 (0.72-1.44)  
   high 43 1.12 (0.76-1.65) 0.949 1.00 (0.66-1.52) 0.511
  Women low 53 1   1  
   medium 58 1.02 (0.70-1.48)   0.99 (0.67-1.47)  
   high 34 0.88 (0.57-1.36) 0.625 0.83 (0.52-1.34) 0.459
Respiratory tract Men low 19 1   1  
n = 143   medium 42 2.10 (1.22-3.61)   1.84 (1.05-3.23)  
   high 18 1.64 (0.86-3.14) 0.044 1.24 (0.62-2.47) 0.381
  Women low 18 1   1  
   medium 27 1.38 (0.76-2.51)   1.42 (0.76-2.66)  
   high 19 1.39 (0.72-2.65) 0.261 1.37 (0.67-2.82) 0.328
Urinary tract Both sexes low 40 1   1  
n = 116   medium 47 1.11 (0.73-1.69)   1.11 (0.72-1.73)  
   high 29 1.11 (0.69-1.81) 0.591 1.15 (0.68-1.94) 0.552
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma Both sexes low 44 1   1  
n = 111   medium 40 0.83 (0.54-1.28)   0.92 (0.59-1.44)  
   high 27 0.90 (0.56-1.46) 0.902 1.10 (0.65-1.88) 0.400
Malignant melanoma Both sexes low 34 1   1  
n = 105   medium 50 1.21 (0.78-1.87)   1.22 (0.77-1.93)  
   high 21 0.76 (0.44-1.31) 0.475 0.76 (0.42-1.37) 0.509
Endometrium Women low 30 1   1  
n = 103   medium 41 1.25 (0.78-2.01)   1.35 (0.83-2.21)  
   high 32 1.42 (0.86-2.34) 0.268 1.60 (0.92-2.79) 0.161
Ovary Women low 24 1   1  
n = 72   medium 28 1.03 (0.59-1.78)   1.01 (0.57-1.79)  
   high 20 1.07 (0.59-1.94) 0.710 0.99 (0.51-1.92) 0.927
Leukemia Both sexes low 25 1   1  
n = 70   medium 23 0.82 (0.46-1.44)   0.78 (0.43-1.40)  
   high 22 1.20 (0.67-2.14) 0.476 1.14 (0.60-2.15) 0.601
Pancreas Both sexes low 25 1   1  
n = 70   medium 28 1.03 (0.60-1.76)   0.88 (0.50-1.55)  
   high 17 0.99 (0.53-1.84) 0.771 0.77 (0.39-1.50) 0.584
Stomach Both sexes low 24 1   1  
n = 69   medium 33 1.27 (0.75-2.16)   1.35 (0.78-2.35)  
   high 12 0.74 (0.37-1.49) 0.301 0.84 (0.40-1.79) 0.526
Multiple myeloma Both sexes low 23 1   1  
n = 63   medium 29 1.13 (0.66-1.96)   0.94 (0.53-1.68)  
   high 11 0.68 (0.33-1.40) 0.692 0.51 (0.24-1.10) 0.211
Renal cell Both sexes low 21 1   1  
n = 50   medium 21 0.92 (0.50-1.69)   0.89 (0.47-1.68)  
   high 8 0.56 (0.25-1.27) 0.174 0.54 (0.23-1.30) 0.162
  1. 1 LCHP scores were calculated separately for FFQ version and sex, and categorized into roughly equally sized groups: low (2–8 points), medium (9–13 points) and high (14–20 points).
  2. 2 Hazard ratios were determined by Cox regression analyses.
  3. 3 Including age strata.
  4. 4 Further adjusted for obesity, sedentary lifestyle, lack of postsecondary education, current smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and saturated fat.
  5. 5 p-trend were calculated per 1-point increase in LCHP score.