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Table 1 Characteristics of US adults from national nutrition and time use surveys, 1965-1966 to 2007-2008 *

From: Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008

National nutrition surveys
  HFCS NFCS   CSFII   CSFII   NHANES   NHANES  
  1965- 1966 1977-1978   1989-1991   1994-1996   2003-2004   2007-2008  
  (n=4,114) (n=12,935) p a (n=7,750) p (n=6,894) p (n=3,138) p (n=3,734) p
Gender            
Male 43.3% 41.1% 0.104 48.1% <0.001 49.3% <0.001 49.1% <0.001 48.3% <0.001
Age group            
19 - 30 28.0% 36.3% <0.001 32.4% 0.167 30.1% 0.640 29.5% 1.000 28.6% 1.000
31 - 40 26.3% 23.6% 0.0243 30.2% 0.007 30.1% 0.002 24.1% 0.804 22.7% 0.048
41 - 50 25.6% 19.8% <0.001 21.9% 0.006 23.7% 0.249 24.5% 1.000 26.2% 1.000
51 - 60 20.1% 20.3% 1.000 15.5% <0.001 16.1% 0.001 21.9% 1.000 22.5% 0.437
Income            
Low 21.0% 13.7% <0.001 12.8% <0.001 15.3% 0.005 22.9% 1.000 22.7% 1.000
Middle 52.7% 26.7% <0.001 28.5% <0.001 28.9% <0.001 25.9% <0.001 26.0% <0.001
High 26.3% 49.6% <0.001 58.7% <0.001 55.8% <0.001 51.2% <0.001 51.3% <0.001
National time use surveys
  MCTRP AUTP   AUTP   NHAPS 1992–1994 and NTDS   ATUS   ATUS  
  1965- 1966 1975-1976   1985-1986   1994-1995   2003-2004   2007-2008  
  (n=1,888) (n=3,190) p b (n=2,391) p (n=6,291) p (n=24,382) p (n=17,282) p
Gender            
  Male 47.5% 46.7% 1.000 46.7% 1.000 45.8% 1.000 48.9% 1.000 49.5% 0.556
Age group            
19 - 30 32.3% 35.1% 0.305 34.3% 0.942 31.1% 1.000 25.8% <0.001 26.2% <0.001
31 - 40 22.4% 25.5% 0.062 29.7% <0.001 29.7% <0.001 27.0% <0.001 25.6% 0.009
41 - 50 26.3% 18.8% <0.001 19.1% <0.001 24.3% 0.428 26.5% 1.000 26.5% 1.000
51 - 60 19.0% 20.6% 1.000 16.9% 0.442 14.9% <0.001 20.6% 0.549 21.7% 0.046
Income status            
Low 15.9% 9.9% <0.001 14.5% 1.000 30.5% <0.001 21.5% <0.001 19.9% <0.001
Middle 52.4% 54.2% 1.000 51.1% 1.000 34.4% <0.001 49.9% 0.208 46.8% <0.001
High 31.6% 35.9% 0.019 34.4% 0.374 35.1% 0.427 28.6% 0.049 33.3% 0.867
  1. * Abbreviations: HFCS is the Household Food Consumption Survey, NFCS is the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, CSFII is Continuing Food Intakes by Individuals, and NHANES is National Health and Nutrition Survey. MCTBRP is the Multinational Comparative Time-Budget Research Project, AUTP is American’s Use of Time Project, NHAPS and NTDS are the National Human Activity Pattern Survey and National Time Diary Study, respectively, and ATUS is the American Time Use Study. Percentages have been adjusted to be nationally representative.
  2. Income distributions for the dietary and time use surveys cannot be directly compared as income categories in the diet surveys reflect the ratio of family income to poverty (≤130%, 130% to 300%, and ≥ 300%) while income categories in the time use surveys reflect the quantile of respondent income (lowest 25%, middle 50%, and highest 25%).
  3. a Different from the HFCS 1965–1966 (proportions testing).
  4. b Different from the MCTRP 1965–1966, (proportions testing).