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Table 4 Mean daily nutrient and food intakes by the ffq at week 12 th and nutrient plasma concentrations and pearson correlation coefficients in pregnant women of the Inma-Valencia study, 2004–2006

From: Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women in a Mediterranean area

Nutrients and foods FFQ1 Plasma concentration Pearson coefficient correlations between FFQ1 and plasma concentrations Agreement (%) c
Mean Mean (SD) r a r badj.  
Retinol (μmol/l) 812 1.78 (0.54) 0.02 0.05 52.3
α- carotene (μmol/l) 536 0.15 (0.14) 0.31** 0.32** 61.9
β- carotene (μmol/l) 4499 0.40 (0.30) 0.21** 0.22** 58.8
Lutein + Zeaxanthin (μmol/l) 3157 0.32 (0.13) 0.26** 0.29** 60.1
Lycopene (μmol/l) 4410 0.72 (0.62) 0.05 0.04 52.3
β-cryptoxanthin (μmol/l) 360 0.22 (0.15) 0.26** 0.26** 62.3
Folate (mmol/dl) 305 80 (211) 0.06 0.12** 51.1
Diet + supplements (n=708) d 1616   0.53** 0.53** 72.0
Vitamin B12 (pmol/l) 9.9 322 (121) 0.08* 0.08* 55.3
Diet + supplements (n=740) d 12.0   0.11** 0.12** 55.0
Vitamin C (μmol/l) 144 50 (22) 0.16** 0.18** 57.4
Diet + supplements (n=520) d 157   0.18** 0.20** 58.3
Vitamin E (μmol/l) 11.4 33.2 (7.4) 0.01 0.05 52.6
Fruits and vegetables (g/day), mean (SD) vs 508 (260)   0.25** 0.28** 61.7
Carotenoids (μmol/l)e   1.09 (0.56)    
  1. a Nutrient intakes were log-transformed; b Adjusted for total energy intake and plasma carotenoids and vitamin E adjusted for total cholesterol; c Overall proportion categorized in the same or an adjacent quintile based on energy-adjusted intakes; d Total nutrient intake from diet and supplements. Folic acid from supplements were converted to dietary folate (0.6 μg from supplements =1 μg from diet); plasma concentration of vitamin C was available for 520 women; e Carotenoid in plasma included α-carotene, β-carotene, Lutein+Zeaxanthin, β- Cryptoxanthin; * P <0.05; ** P<0.01.