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Table 3 Mean daily nutrient and food intakes and Pearson correlation coefficients among pregnant women of the INMA-Valencia Study, 2004–2006

From: Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women in a Mediterranean area

  FFQ1a FFQ2 a P b Pearson coefficient correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 Percent of agreement e
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    Unadjusted c Adjusted d
Nutrients (units/day)       
Energy (kcals) 2304 (587) 2212 (633) <0.001 0.58   75.4
Protein (g) 102 (25) 99 (27) <0.001 0.53 0.49 75.8
Total carbohydrates (g) 261 (81) 253 (86) 0.005 0.57 0.36 73.8
Dietary fiber (g) 24 (8) 22 (8) <0.001 0.48 0.43 68.8
Cholesterol (mg) 340 (109) 332 (113) 0.070 0.48 0.35 72.0
Total fat (g) 99 (29) 93 (31) <0.001 0.50 0.35 74.2
SFA (g/) 31 (11) 30 (11) 0.026 0.51 0.38 72.7
MUFA (g) 46 (14) 43 (14) <0.001 0.46 0.35 69.6
PUFA (g) 15 (6) 14 (7) 0.001 0.49 0.35 73.0
Omega 3 (g) 1.6 (0.5) 1.5 (0.5) <0.001 0.53 0.50 71.9
Omega 6 (g) 13 (6) 12 (6) 0.001 0.49 0.35 73.0
Retinol (μg) 812 (819) 844 (781) 0.335 0.51 0.53 76.2
α- carotene (μg) 536 (468) 532 (525) 0.859 0.50 0.51 71.6
β- carotene (μg) 4499 (2438) 4553 (2665) 0.583 0.55 0.56 72.7
Lutein+Zeaxanthin (μg) 3157 (2455) 3091 (2381) 0.453 0.59 0.59 75.7
Lycopene (μg) 4410 (2727) 5004 (3763) <0.001 0.14 0.06* 57.7
β- Cryptoxanthin (μg) 360 (253) 362 (263) 0.851 0.38 0.36 67.0
Vitamin B6 (mg) 2.1 (0.7) 2.1 (0.8) 0.684 0.53 0.50 73.4
Folate (μg) 305 (99) 297 (106) 0.034 0.52 0.48 71.5
Vitamin B12 (μg) 9.9 (5.7) 9.7 (5.5) 0.335 0.46 0.43 70.8
Vitamin C (mg) 144 (83) 143 (86) 0.720 0.45 0.44 71.7
Vitamin D (μg) 3.1 (1.9) 3.3 (2.1)) 0.009 0.55 0.52 71.5
Vitamin E (mg) 11.4. (4.1) 10.8 (4.5) 0.001 0.45 0.37 70.1
Calcium (mg) 1289 (429) 1320 (455) 0.060 0.51 0.49 71.4
Iron (mg) 21 (6) 20 (6) <0.001 0.53 0.40 75.0
Magnesium (mg) 387 (105) 383 (107) 0.215 0.69 0.57 72.7
Sodium(mg) 3411 (996) 3171 (1043) <0.001 0.49 0.33 72.8
Zinc (mg) 28 (7) 26 (7) <0.001 0.52 0.40 74.1
Iodine f (μg) 222 (88) 226 (84) 0.151 0.70 0.72 80.5
Food groups (g/day)       
Dairy Products 468 (245) 520 (262) <0.001 0.55 0.44 72.8
Eggs 20 (10) 21 (11) 0.288 0.39 0.36 96.2
White meat 33 (18) 32 (23) 0.129 0.38 0.37 78.4
Red meat 60 (32) 54 (29) <0.001 0.40 0.36 68.4
Processed meat 42 (33) 39 (33) 0.034 0.36 0.33 66.8
Lean fish 25 (20) 25 (20) 0.264 0.36 0.36 70.9
Fatty fish 28 (23) 28 (24) 0.857 0.41 0.41 68.6
Seafood 11 (11) 10 (9) <0.001 0.43 0.40 70.8
Fruits 293 (204) 320 (217) 0.004 0.41 0.38 59.3
Vegetables 216 (121) 213 (126) 0.554 0.61 0.62 59.5
Nuts 6 (11) 5 (7) 0.003 0.23 0.17 79.1
Legumes 31 (25) 28 (23) 0.005 0.39 0.38 93.0
Cereals and Pasta 119 (51) 114 (49) 0.015 0.48 0.43 71.5
Bread 103 (72) 86 (65) <0.001 0.38 0.35 64.3
Potatoes 60 (38) 55 (37) 0.001 0.39 0.33 66.9
Sweets and sugar 53 (44) 54 (48) 0.438 0.44 0.37 69.5
Vegetable fat 24 (14) 22 (14) <0.001 0.30 0.30 64.3
  1. a FFQ1 administered between weeks 10–13th and FFQ2 between weeks 28–32nd of gestation; b P-value from paired t-test; c Nutrient crude intakes were log-transformed; d Adjusted for total energy intake; e Overall percentage categorized in the same or an adjacent quintile; f Iodine intake from diet and use of iodized salt; * P>0.05, all other coefficients, P<0.01; SFA, Saturated fatty acids; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, Polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  2. (n=740).