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Table 1 The effects of palmvitee supplementation on plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol, α 1 -antitrypsin in serum and urine cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers

From: Perturbation of cellular immune functions in cigarette smokers and protection by palm oil vitamin E supplementation

Weeks Tocopherol (μg/ml plasma)
  Nonsmokers Smokers
  Placebo, n = 27 Palmvitee, n = 29 Placebo, n = 28 Palmvitee,n = 30
0 11.67 ± 3.19 11.75 ± 2.27 11.58 ± 3.19 11.39 ± 3.06
12 10.42 ± 2.17 14.22 ± 3.61* 10.27 ± 3.33 13.92 ± 4.17**
24 11.52 ± 2.94 14.56 ± 3.06* 11.53 ± 2.78 14.11 ± 3.89**
   Tocotrienol (ng/ml)  
0 62.49 ± 6.69 63.60 ± 5.67 60.05 ± 6.39 59.49 ± 4.21
12 63.50 ± 7.87 656.25 ± 142.50* 61.27 ± 3.62 570.22 ± 98.64**
24 60.65 ± 7.13 675.16 ± 150.00* 60.47 ± 3.00 587.68 ± 87.50**
   CCR, ( μg/mg creatinine)  
  n = 16 n = 19 n = 21 n = 20
0 0.052 ± 0.017 0.046 ± 0.017 0.927 ± 0.734# 0.941 ± 0.700#
24 0.058 ± 0.030 0.047 ± 0.017 0.866 ± 0.754# 1.179 ± 0.738#
   α 1 -antitripsin(g/L serum)  
  n = 16 n = 19 n = 28 n = 30
0 1.48 ± 0.31 1.49 ± 0.34 1.99 ± 0.43# 1.94 ± 0.31#
24 1.47 ± 0.20 1.45 ± 0.24 1.69 ± 0.37 1.75 ± 0.39
  1. Results are shown as mean ± SD. * indicates significant difference as compared to nonsmokers taking placebo (p < 0.01), ** indicates significant difference as compared to smokers taking placebo (p < 0.01), # indicates significant difference as compared to nonsmokers (p < 0.0001), CCR represents cotinine:creatinine ratio.