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Table 1 Basic characteristic of study participants

From: Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case–control study in Central Europe

  Colorectal cancer cases Controls p
  [n = 703] [n = 853]  
Gender [n, (%)]
Males 398 (56.6%) 439 (51.5%) df = 1
Females 305 (43.4%) 414 (48.5%) pchi = 0.043
Age
Mean, (SD) 57.9 (9.1) 54.8 (11.5)  
Median (Q1-Q3) 59 (52–65) 56 (47–64) pMW < 0.001
Education [n, (%)] n = 701 n = 852  
Primary school or less 106 (15.1%) 126 (14.8%) df = 3
Vocational school 185 (26.4%) 236 (27.7%) pchi = 0.947
Secondary/high school 250 (35.7%) 296 (34.7%)
University or higher 160 (22.8%) 194 (22.8%)
Recreational physical activity* [METs-h/week]
Mean, (SD) 17.3 (16.0) 17.0 (15.4) pMW = 0.968
Median (Q1-Q3) 12.9 (5.6-24.5) 13.0 (5.8-24.4)
BMI/body mass index [kg/m2] n = 702 n = 846  
Mean, (SD) 27.3 (4.1) 27.2 (4.6) pMW = 0.411
Median (Q1-Q3) 26.9 (24.4-29.7) 26.7 (24.1-29.8)
Smoking   n = 852  
Current smoker 309 (43.9%) 379 (44.5%) df = 2
Ex-smoker 179 (25.5%) 267 (31.3%) pchi = 0.005
Non-smoker 215 (30.6%) 206 (24.2%)  
  1. chi-chi-square test; df degrees of freedom, MW Mann–Whitney test.
  2. * -adult lifetime recreational physical activity, i.e. the average for the period 18-current age (if current age <66) or for the period 18–65 (if current age >65).