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Table 1 Prevalence rates of obesity according to covariables in Ribeirao Preto and Sao Luis, Brazil

From: Cesarean section and increased body mass index in school children: two cohort studies from distinct socioeconomic background areas in Brazil

Variables* Ribeirao Preto Sao Luis
Total Obese   Total Obese  
N% n% P N% n% P
Type of delivery    0.022    0.091
  Vaginal 353 (45.5) 33 (9.8)   460 (69.2) 7 (1.4)  
  Cesarean 437 (54.5) 71 (15.7)   213 (30.8) 8 (3.5)  
Maternal schooling at birth (years) 0.010    0.811
  ≤ 8 462 (58.3) 46 (10.0)   404 (60.6) 8 (1.9)  
  9 – 11 170 (20.8) 34 (20.8)   255 (37.6) 7 (2.4)  
  ≥ 12 93 (11.9) 15 (12.7)   14 (1.8) 0 (0.0)  
  Missing 65 (9.0) 9 (14.8)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy 0.948    0.442
  No 595 (80.6) 82 (13.3)   645 (96.0) 15 (2.2)  
  Yes 160 (19.4) 19 (13.1)   28 (4.0) 0 (0.0)  
Birth weight (g)    0.159    0.157
  ≥ 3,000 447 (64.0) 70 (14.6)   458 (69.8) 7 (1.5)  
  2,500|- 3,000 174 (26.1) 17 (9.9)   134 (23.6) 4 (3.0)  
  < 2,500 169 (9.9) 17 (10.4)   81 (6.6) 4 (4.9)  
Preterm delivery    0.852    0.315
  No 604 (87.9) 82 (13.1)   586 (88.3) 14 (2.2)  
  Yes 186 (12.1) 22 (12.5)   87 (11.7) 1 (0.8)  
Newborn gender    0.152    0.056
  Male 402 (50.8) 62 (14.8)   348 (51.7) 11 (3.1)  
  Female 388 (49.2) 42 (11.1)   325 (48.3) 4 (1.0)  
Maternal schooling at follow up (years) <0.001    0.851
  ≤ 8 455 (58.8) 39 (8.9)   317 (48.5) 6 (2.0)  
  9 – 11 221 (27.7) 47 (21.2)   317 (48.7) 8 (2.2)  
  ≥ 12 106 (13.5) 17 (13.6)   21 (2.8) 1 (3.7)  
Duration of breastfeeding 0.242    0.372
  >30 days 616 (80.8) 76 (12.2)   521 (79.4) 11 (1.8)  
  No Breastfeeding 104 (12.0) 17 (18.6)   62 (9.4) 1 (2.0)  
  ≤ 30 days 60 (7.2) 10 (14.2)   71 (11.2) 3 (4.5)  
Type of school    0.405    0.555
  Public 647 (83.0) 80 (12.5)   519 (78.2) 10 (1.9)  
  Private 143 (17.0) 24 (15.4)   153 (21.8) 5 (2.7)  
  1. *Missing values less than 5% were not shown in the table.