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Table 5 Binary logistic regression analysis: odds of women ever having been diagnosed with asthma or asthma/hayfever by dietary factor in the 45 and up study sample, new south wales, Australia, 2006-2009

From: Dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma or hayfever diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults: a cross-sectional study

     Asthma (n = 73,691) Asthma/Hayfever (n = 85,056)
Dietary factor Mean age (years) Ever smoker (%) Mean BMI Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
     Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted# OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted# OR (95% CI)
Fruits/vegetables        
 1st quintile (reference) 59.29 39 26.72 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2nd quintile 59.51 35 26.57 0.99 (0.92 to 1.06) 0.99 (0.92 to 1.06) 1.05 (1.00 to 1.10) 1.03 (0.98 to 1.08)
 3rd quintile 60.42 34 26.68 1.00 (0.94 to 1.07) 1.00 (0.93 to 1.07) 1.08 (1.03 to 1.13) * 1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)
 4th quintile 61.14 34 26.76 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12) 1.04 (0.98 to 1.12) 1.11 (1.05 to 1.16) * 1.09 (1.03 to 1.14) *
 5th quintile 61.82 34 26.81 1.04 (0.97 to 1.11) 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12) 1.07 (1.02 to 1.12) * 1.07 (1.02 to 1.12) *
p value for trend 0.384 0.259 0.001 0.011
Meats        
 1st quintile (reference) 60.25 37 25.53 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2nd quintile 60.48 36 26.46 1.01 (0.94 to 1.08) 0.99 (0.92 to 1.06) 1.05 (1.00 to 1.11) * 1.05 (1.00 to 1.11) *
 3rd quintile 60.31 35 26.86 1.07 (1.00 to 1.14) 1.03 (0.96 to 1.10) 1.14 (1.08 to 1.19) * 1.13 (1.07 to 1.18) *
 4th quintile 60.37 35 27.18 1.10 (1.03 to 1.17) * 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) 1.19 (1.13 to 1.25) * 1.17 (1.12 to 1.23) *
 5th quintile 60.77 35 27.55 1.12 (1.05 to 1.19) * 1.06 (0.99 to 1.13) 1.26 (1.20 to 1.32) * 1.25 (1.19 to 1.31) *
p value for trend 0.002 0.253 < 0.001 < 0.0001
Poultry/seafood        
 1st quintile (reference) 61.49 36 26.31 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2nd quintile 60.32 35 26.52 0.97 (0.91 to 1.04) 0.96 (0.90 to 1.03) 1.01 (0.96 to 1.06) 0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)
 3rd quintile 60.34 35 26.63 0.99 (0.93 to 1.06) 0.97 (0.91 to 1.04) 1.01 (0.96 to 1.06) 0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)
 4th quintile 60.11 35 26.82 0.99 (0.92 to 1.06) 0.96 (0.90 to 1.02) 1.04 (0.99 to 1.09) 1.01 (0.96 to 1.06)
 5th quintile 59.92 36 27.27 1.12 (1.05 to 1.19) * 1.06 (1.00 to 1.14) 1.12 (1.06 to 1.17) * 1.06 (1.01 to 1.12) *
p value for trend < 0.001 0.011 0.0001 0.016
Cereal/alcohol        
 1st quintile (reference) 57.64 53 26.34 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2nd quintile 58.76 39 26.84 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05) 0.99 (0.93 to 1.06) 0.99 (0.95 to 1.04) 1.00 (0.95 to 1.04)
 3rd quintile 59.72 33 26.77 0.93 (0.87 to 0.99) * 0.95 (0.89 to 1.02) 0.97 (0.93 to 1.02) 0.98 (0.93 to 1.03)
 4th quintile 61.59 29 26.77 0.97 (0.90 to 1.03) 1.00 (0.94 to 1.07) 1.01 (0.96 to 1.06) 1.03 (0.98 to 1.08)
 5th quintile 64.47 23 26.85 0.99 (0.93 to 1.06) 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12) 1.02 (0.98 to 1.07) 1.07 (1.02 to 1.13) *
p value for trend 0.199 0.104 0.346 0.005
Cheese/brown bread        
 1st quintile (reference) 58.24 35 27.02 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2nd quintile 59.29 36 26.84 0.92 (0.86 to 0.98) * 0.92 (0.86 to 0.98) * 0.94 (0.90 to 0.99) * 0.94 (0.90 to 0.99) *
 3rd quintile 60.37 35 26.78 0.87 (0.82 to 0.93) * 0.88 (0.83 to 0.94) * 0.95 (0.90 to 0.99) * 0.95 (0.90 to 1.00) *
 4th quintile 61.43 35 26.54 0.88 (0.82 to 0.94) * 0.89 (0.84 to 0.96) * 0.95 (0.91 to 1.00) * 0.96 (0.92 to 1.01)
 5th quintile 62.84 36 26.39 0.86 (0.80 to 0.91) * 0.88 (0.82 to 0.94) * 0.95 (0.90 to 0.99) * 0.97 (0.92 to 1.02)
p value for trend < 0.001 < 0.001 0.090 0.136
  1. Notes: OR = odds ratio; BMI = body mass index in kg/m2; CI = confidence interval; *Significantly different from reference category, P < 0.05; #Model adjusted for age group (45–64, 65–74, 75–84, 85+), education (no school certificate, school or intermediate certificate, high school or leaving certificate, trade apprentice, certificate or diploma, university degree or higher), weight status (normal, underweight, overweight, obese), physical activity weekly minutes quartile, and smoking status (never smoked, ever smoked).