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Table 3 Distribution of tocopherols (T) in plasma lipoprotein fractions during supplementation with the α-tocopherol and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) treatments (mean values ± SEM, n = 10)*

From: Alpha-tocotrienol is the most abundant tocotrienol isomer circulated in plasma and lipoproteins after postprandial tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation

  α-T γ-T
  TRP LDL HDL TRP LDL HDL
  α-T TRF α-T TRF α-T TRF α-T TRF α-T TRF α-T TRF
  % %
0 h 18.21 ± 2.31 21.2 ± 4.79 39.53 ± 2.53 41.25 ± 3.67 40.73 ± 2.57 36.20 ± 2.84 0.08 ± 0.08 0.33 ± 0.21 0.46 ± 0.19 0.47 ± 0.21 1.00 ± 0.41 0.55 ± 0.24
2 h 29.85 ± 3.57 25.13 ± 4.02 33.48 ± 2.56 33.53 ± 3.80 34.34 ± 2.50 30.87 ± 2.87 0.79 ± 0.22 0.97 ± 0.41 0.51 ± 0.15 0.58 ± 0.23 1.02 ± 0.27 0.76 ± 0.23
Change 11.65 ± 2.44§ 3.93 ± 1.24§ -6.05 ± 1.66 -7.72 ± 2.58 -6.38 ± 1.71 -5.34 ± 1.10 0.72 ± 0.22 0.64 ± 0.31 0.05 ± 0.17 0.11 ± 0.27 0.01 ± 0.25 0.22 ± 0.29
4 h 33.34 ± 3.34 26.93 ± 3.53 30.74 ± 2.33 26.38 ± 2.78 31.78 ± 2.50 26.18 ± 2.89 2.02 ± 0.31 2.27 ± 0.54 0.80 ± 0.13 1.06 ± 0.18 1.32 ± 0.19 1.52 ± 0.22
Change 15.14 ± 2.83§ 5.73 ± 1.66§ -8.79 ± 2.22 -14.48 ± 2.49 -8.95 ± 1.20 -10.02 ± 2.11 1.94 ± 0.34 1.95 ± 0.51 0.35 ± 0.21 0.59 ± 0.23 0.32 ± 0.34 0.97 ± 0.30
5 h 31.55 ± 3.29 26.40 ± 3.92 31.89 ± 2.13 25.97 ± 3.00 32.01 ± 2.34 26.12 ± 3.11 2.06 ± 0.39 2.37 ± 0.54 0.97 ± 0.08 1.19 ± 0.10 1.38 ± 0.20 1.61 ± 0.27
Change 13.34 ± 2.77§ 5.20 ± 1.72§ -7.64 ± 1.58 -15.29 ± 3.12 -8.72 ± 1.75 -10.09 ± 2.01 1.99 ± 0.42 2.04 ± 0.49 0.51 ± 0.25 0.72 ± 0.20 0.38 ± 0.38 1.06 ± 0.35
6 h 27.76 ± 2.14 24.10 ± 4.29 36.27 ± 1.97 29.45 ± 3.47 31.58 ± 2.27 25.50 ± 2.52 1.81 ± 0.40 2.30 ± 0.59 1.04 ± 0.09 1.39 ± 0.16 1.40 ± 0.25 1.70 ± 0.22
Change 9.55 ± 2.07§ 2.90 ± 1.78§ -3.26 ± 1.65 -11.80 ± 2.64 -9.15 ± 1.48 -10.71 ± 2.37 1.73 ± 0.43 1.97 ± 0.54 0.58 ± 0.28 0.92 ± 0.23 0.40 ± 0.37 1.15 ± 0.28
8 h 17.93 ± 2.24 17.96 ± 4.60 40.41 ± 1.83 35.74 ± 3.46 37.54 ± 1.99 31.26 ± 2.82 1.07 ± 0.35 1.36 ± 0.44 1.28 ± 0.20 1.62 ± 0.13 1.64 ± 0.39 1.97 ± 0.30
Change -0.28 ± 2.15 -3.24 ± 1.85 0.88 ± 1.64 -5.52 ± 1.34 -3.18 ± 1.73 -4.95 ± 2.23 1.00 ± 0.37 1.04 ± 0.33 0.83 ± 0.34 1.14 ± 0.28 0.64 ± 0.36 1.43 ± 0.41
24 h 17.39 ± 1.72 19.94 ± 4.46 40.71 ± 2.38 38.82 ± 3.60 40.59 ± 2.11 40.42 ± 3.12 0.12 ± 0.09 0.21 ± 0.21 0.33 ± 0.19 0.18 ± 0.12 0.87 ± 0.45 0.43 ± 0.22
Change -0.82 ± 2.35 -1.26 ± 2.11 1.17 ± 2.27 -2.43 ± 1.92 -0.15 ± 1.16 4.22 ± 1.35 0.05 ± 0.10 -0.12 ± 0.88 -0.13 ± 0.22 -0.18 ± 0.23 -0.13 ± 0.49 0.01 ± 0.34
AUC 501.58 ± 42.79 495.54 ± 101.10 928.26 ± 40.04 805.20 ± 73.76 899.04 ± 45.72 806.29 ± 62.67 20.07 ± 5.26 25.37 ± 7.97 19.38 ± 2.92 22.53 ± 2.10 30.25 ± 7.60 29.72 ± 5.02
  1. TRF, tocotrienol-rich fraction; TRP, triacylglycerol rich particles; AUC, area under the curve (arbitrary unit); α-T, α-tocopherol; γ-T, γ-tocopherol.
  2. * Significant time × treatment × group (lipoproteins) interaction of α-T were found (3-factor repeated-measures MANOVA).
  3. † Changes were calculated as the difference between values at each postprandial interval and baseline (0 h).
  4. ‡ Significant increment from baseline (0 h) value, P < 0.05 (Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test).
  5. § Significant difference of α-T content in TRP between α-tocopherol and TRF treatments, P < 0.05 (Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test)