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Table 3 Hazard ratios for overall and Gleason-specific prostate cancer by coffee consumption categories among 3527 men from the Collaborative cohort study who survived until 1 st January 1997

From: Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship

    Cups of coffee per day P-value for trend
   0 1--2 ≥3  
All prostate cancer     
  Total PC cases 81 67 38  
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)a reference 0.86 (0.62-1.20) 0.75 (0.50-1.11) 0.15
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)b reference 0.84 (0.60-1.21) 0.74 (0.47-1.16) 0.23
Gleason < 7     
  Total PC cases 17 17 07  
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)a reference 1.18 (0.59-2.35) 0.75 (0.30-1.87) 0.65
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)b reference 1.04 (0.51-2.17) 0.54 (0.19-1.57) 0.48
Gleason = 7     
  Total PC cases 12 14 12  
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)a reference 1.13 (0.51-2.50) 1.39 (0.60-3.22) 0.45
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)b reference 1.23 (0.53-2.84) 1.79 (0.69-4.62) 0.17
Gleason 8-10     
  Total PC cases 39 20 11  
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)a reference 0.52 (0.30-0.91) 0.45 (0.23-0.90) 0.01
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)b reference 0.51 (0.28-0.92) 0.47 (0.22-1.01) 0.03
Unknown Gleason     
  Total PC cases 13 16 08  
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)a reference 1.26 (0.59-2.69) 0.99 (0.40-2.49) 0.08
  Hazard Ratio (95% CI)b reference 1.17 (0.52-2.64) 0.88 (0.31-2.48) 0.89
  1. Prostate cancer cases =186.
  2. a = adjusted for age and social class, b = adjusted for age at screening, cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, BMI, alcohol intake, tea intake, smoking status, social class.