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Table 1 Characteristics and distribution of daily intake of dairy products and calcium at baseline in the study population (n = 315) as compared with the non-participating or excluded subjects (n = 687), OMCHS, Japan

From: Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

Variable Study population, No (%) or mean (SD) Excluded subjects, No (%) or mean (SD) Pvalue
Baseline characteristics
Maternal age (years)    0.0003
 < 29 91 (28.9) 289 (42.1)  
 29-31 106 (33.7) 193 (28.1)  
 ≥ 32 118 (37.5) 205 (29.8)  
Gestational age at baseline (weeks)    0.23
 < 15 111 (35.2) 246 (35.8)  
 15-20 94 (29.8) 235 (34.2)  
 ≥ 21 110 (34.9) 206 (30.0)  
Family income (yen/year)    0.005
 < 4,000,000 75 (23.8) 226 (32.9)  
4,000,000-5,999,999 129 (41.0) 274 (39.9)  
 ≥ 6,000,000 111 (35.2) 187 (27.2)  
Maternal education (years)    <0.0001
 < 13 69 (21.9) 254 (37.0)  
 13-14 136 (43.2) 277 (40.3)  
 ≥ 15 110 (34.9) 156 (22.7)  
Paternal education (years)    0.002
 < 13 102 (32.4) 298 (43.4)  
 13-14 55 (17.5) 117 (68.0)  
 ≥ 15 158 (50.2) 272 (39.6)  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy 43 (13.7) 141 (20.5) 0.009
Daily food and nutrition intake 1
Total energy (kJ) 7564.7 ± 1770.0 7689.8 ± 2054.8 0.32
Total dairy products (g) 180.8 ± 113.1 164.2 ± 124.8 0.04
Milk (g) 129.5 ± 101.4 119.2 ± 112.6 0.15
Yogurt (g) 45.5 ± 38.6 39.6 ± 46.8 0.04
Cheese (g) 5.9 ± 8.9 5.4 ± 7.9 0.40
Calcium (mg) 561.9 ± 168.6 529.5 ± 174.7 0.006
  1. 1Nutrient intake and food intake were adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method in a total of 1002 subjects.