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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for rhinoconjunctivitis by quartiles of intake of specific fats in 1745 pregnant women, Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, Japan

From: Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

  Quartile     
Variable 1 (Lowest) (n = 436) 2 (n = 436) 3 (n = 436) 4 (Highest) (n = 437) P for trend
Total fat
   Intake, g/day* 47.2 54.7 60.4 69.7  
   Prevalence, % 23.9 25.2 25.7 28.8  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.08 (0.79-1.47) 1.10 (0.81-1.50) 1.29 (0.96-1.75) 0.10
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.09 (0.79-1.49) 1.11 (0.81-1.53) 1.31 (0.96-1.79) 0.09
Saturated fatty acids
   Intake, g/day* 12.6 15.5 17.6 21.2  
   Prevalence, % 25.7 25.2 23.6 29.1  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.98 (0.72-1.32) 0.90 (0.66-1.22) 1.19 (0.88-1.60) 0.36
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.72-1.35) 0.96 (0.70-1.32) 1.20 (0.88-1.63) 0.29
Monounsaturated fatty acids
   Intake, g/day* 15.7 18.9 21.2 25.0  
   Prevalence, % 24.3 25.0 25.9 28.4  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.76-1.41) 1.09 (0.80-1.48) 1.23 (0.91-1.67) 0.16
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.72-1.36) 1.08 (0.79-1.48) 1.19 (0.87-1.63) 0.21
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids
   Intake, g/day* 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.9  
   Prevalence, % 25.5 25.2 24.8 28.2  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.73-1.34) 0.96 (0.71-1.31) 1.15 (0.85-1.55) 0.42
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.67-1.26) 0.90 (0.65-1.23) 1.07 (0.78-1.45) 0.72
α-Linolenic acid
   Intake, g/day* 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2  
   Prevalence, % 25.0 23.2 28.2 27.2  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.90 (0.66-1.23) 1.18 (0.87-1.59) 1.12 (0.83-1.52) 0.21
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.64-1.21) 1.18 (0.86-1.60) 1.04 (0.76-1.42) 0.43
Eicosapentaenoic acid
   Intake, g/day* 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.29  
   Prevalence, % 25.7 25.2 27.1 25.6  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.98 (0.72-1.32) 1.07 (0.79-1.45) 1.00 (0.74-1.35) 0.86
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.91 (0.67-1.25) 1.00 (0.73-1.37) 0.93 (0.68-1.28) 0.81
Docosahexaenoic acid
   Intake, g/day* 0.14 0.22 0.30 0.46  
   Prevalence, % 25.2 25.2 29.4 23.8  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.00 (0.74-1.36) 1.23 (0.91-1.66) 0.93 (0.68-1.26) 0.98
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.93 (0.68-1.27) 1.13 (0.83-1.54) 0.88 (0.64-1.21) 0.73
n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids
   Intake, g/day* 8.5 10.2 11.5 13.5  
   Prevalence, % 24.3 23.2 30.1 26.1  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.69-1.28) 1.34 (0.99-1.81) 1.10 (0.81-1.49) 0.19
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.91 (0.66-1.26) 1.34 (0.98-1.83) 1.05 (0.77-1.45) 0.29
Linoleic acid
   Intake, g/day* 8.3 10.0 11.3 13.1  
   Prevalence, % 24.3 23.6 29.1 26.5  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.96 (0.71-1.31) 1.28 (0.95-1.73) 1.13 (0.83-1.53) 0.19
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.68-1.29) 1.27 (0.93-1.73) 1.08 (0.79-1.48) 0.30
Arachidonic acid
   Intake, g/day* 0.09 0.12 0.14 0.18  
   Prevalence, % 25.0 24.1 28.4 26.1  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.95 (0.70-1.30) 1.19 (0.88-1.61) 1.06 (0.78-1.44) 0.42
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.90 (0.65-1.23) 1.20 (0.88-1.63) 1.05 (0.77-1.43) 0.39
n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio
   Intake* 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.25  
   Prevalence, % 24.8 26.8 27.8 24.3  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.11 (0.82-1.51) 1.17 (0.86-1.58) 0.97 (0.71-1.32) 0.95
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.78-1.46) 1.07 (0.78-1.46) 0.92 (0.67-1.26) 0.61
Cholesterol      
   Intake, mg/day* 182.0 244.5 308.0 402.7  
   Prevalence, % 26.4 22.5 28.0 26.8  
   Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.81 (0.59-1.10) 1.09 (0.81-1.46) 1.02 (0.76-1.38) 0.48
   Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.82 (0.60-1.13) 1.10 (0.81-1.49) 1.05 (0.77-1.42) 0.41
  1. * Values for intake are medians for adjusted energy intake using the residual method for each quartile.
  2. Prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood for each quartile.
  3. Adjustment for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index.