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Table 2 Hazard ratios (95% CI) for atrial fibrillation according to nut consumption in Physicians' Health Study

From: Nut consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in the Physicians' Health Study

Nut intake Cases/person- years Crude incidence rate (1,000 person-years) Hazards Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
    Unadjusted Age adjusted* Model 1**
Rarely/Never 644/84926 7.6 1.0 1.0 1.0
1-3/month 1170/157704 7.4 0.97 (0.88 - 1.06) 1.01 (0.92 - 1.12) 1.00 (0.90 - 1.11)
1/week 842/102290 8.2 1.07 (0.97 - 1.19) 1.12 (1.01 - 1.24) 1.09 (0.97 - 1.21)
2-6/week 587/74642 7.9 1.03 (0.92 - 1.15) 1.05 (0.94 - 1.18) 1.07 (0.95 - 1.21)
≥ 7/week 74/10865 6.8 0.90 (0.71 - 1.14) 0.88 (0.69 - 1.12) 0.91 (0.70 - 1.17)
P for trend    0.41 0.33 0.26
  1. *Age as ordinal variable Adjusted for age (< 45, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+ y)
  2. **Adjusted for Age (< 45, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+ y), body mass index (< 25, 25-29.9, and 30+ kg/m2), aspirin, beta-carotene, physical activity (1 or more times per week vs. < 1 per week), smoking (never, past and current smokers), cereal servings per week (≤ 1, 2-6, ≥ 7), fruit/vegetable servings per week (continuous), alcohol consumption (none, monthly, weekly, daily), history of hypertension, history of hypercholesterolemia and history of diabetes