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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Validity and reproducibility of folate and vitamin B12 intakes estimated from a self-administered diet history questionnaire in Japanese pregnant women

  Validation study Reproducibility study
(n = 58)
  All participants (n = 167) S Hospital
(n = 76)
T Hospital
(n = 91)
   
  Mean ± SD or n (%) Mean ± SD or n (%) Mean ± SD or n (%) p 1 Mean ± SD or n (%)
Age [years] 32.4 ± 4.9 30.5 ± 5.0 34.1 ± 4.1 < 0.001 33.8 ± 4.2
Parity: Primigravida [n (%)] 80 (48) 34 (45) 46 (51) ns 38 (66)
Currently married [n (%)] 166 (99) 75 (99) 91 (100) ns 58 (100)
Education [n (%)]          
   < 13 years 32 (19) 25 (33) 7 (8) < 0.001 3 (5)
   13-15 years 75 (45) 37 (49) 38 (42)   24 (41)
   > 15 years 60 (36) 14 (18) 46 (51)   31 (53)
Household income (Japanese yen/year) [n (%)]          
   < 5,000,000 59 (35) 38 (50) 21 (23) < 0.001 7 (12)
   5,000,000-9,000,000 70 (42) 32 (42) 38 (42)   27 (47)
   > 9,000,000 38 (23) 6 (8) 32 (35)   24 (41)
Height [cm] 158.7 ± 5.7 157.8 ± 5.2 159.5 ± 5.9 0.048 159.1 ± 5.4
Prepregnancy BMI2 [kg/m2] 20.5 ± 2.3 20.6 ± 2.3 20.3 ± 2.4 ns 20.2 ± 3.0
   BMI < 18.5 [n (%)] 28 (17) 8 (11) 20 (22) ns 17 (29)
   18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 [n (%)] 131 (78) 65 (86) 66 (73)   38 (65)
   BMI ≥ 25.0 [n (%)] 8 (5) 3 (4) 5 (6)   3 (5)
Working [n (%)] 66 (40) 21 (28) 45 (50) 0.004 22 (38)
Regular smoker during pregnancy [n (%)] 3 (2) 1 (1) 2 (2) ns 1 (2)
Regular alcohol drinker during pregnancy [n (%)] 5 (3) 2 (3) 3 (3) ns 2 (3)
Nausea during the study period [n (%)] 46 (28) 15 (20) 31 (34) 0.039 10 (17)
Gestational age [weeks] 22.6 ± 2.8 25.4 ± 1.0 20.3 ± 1.2 < 0.001   
Gestational age at first survey [weeks]         16.9 ± 1.5
Gestational age at second survey [weeks]         21.0 ± 1.3
  1. 1Student's t-test or the chi-square test 2BMI: body mass index