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Table 1 Demographic, body-composition and dietary characteristics of individuals with and without the Metabolic Syndrome (MS).

From: Dietary factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults

  Without MS (n = 184) With MS (n = 121) p
Age (years) 54.2 ± 10 55.8 ± 10 < 0.0001
% females 73.4 73.5 0.96
Marital status (single + divorced) 47.4% 57.5% 0.08
Education (illiterate; complete and incomplete elementary school) 46.7% 61.1% 0.01
Income (> 6 minimum salaries) 44% 37.5% 0.29
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 27.5 ± 4.7 31.5 ± 4.7 < 0.0001
%Body Fat 30.6 ± 8 36.5 ± 5 < 0.0001
Muscle Mass Index 8.2 ± 1.5 8.8 ± 1.7 0.0004
TCV (kcal) 1520 ± 578 1521 ± 708 0.99
% Carbohydrate 52.3 ± 9.2 50.5 ± 9.2 0.08
% Protein 18.4 ± 5.4 18.9 ± 6.2 0.44
% Total lipid 29.2 ± 8.6 30.7 ± 8.1 0.14
% Saturated lipid 7.5 (5.2-10.3) 7.6 (5.7-9.6) 0.66
% Monounsaturated lipid 8.3 (6.3-10.6) 8.9 (6.8-11.7) 0.18
% Polyunsaturated lipid 6.8 (4.8-9.2) 7.5 (5.4-9.7) 0.09
Cholesterol (mg) 133 (89-214) 138 (87-204) 0.69
Fibers (g) 13.6 (8.6-19) 12.6 (7.5-19) 0.31
HEI (score) 82.7 ± 14 81.2 ± 13 0.32
Oil (number of servings) 1.5 (1.0-2.5) 1.5 (1.0-3.0) 0.63
Grains (number of servings) 3.0 (2.4-4.0) 3.0 (2.0-4.0) 0.62
Fruit (number of servings) 2.5 (0.4-4.5) 1.4 (0.0-3.5) 0.01
Vegetables (number of servings) 1.5 (0.5-3.0) 1.5 (0.5-2.6) 0.8
Legumes (number of servings) 1.0 (0.3-2.0) 1.0 (0.4-1.5) 0.32
Dairy products (number of servings) 1.4 (0.5-2.0) 1.0 (0.5-2.0) 0.64
Meat (number of servings) 1.5 (1.0-2.5) 1.5 (1.0-2.0) 0.72
Sugar (number of servings) 1.0 (0.06-2.0) 1.0 (0.4-2.0) 0.6
Variety 12.0 (10-15) 11.0 (9.0-15) 0.026
  1. BMI = Body Mass Index; TCV = Total Caloric Value; HEI = Healthy Diet Index; LDL-c = Low-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. Data expressed in mean ± SD or median and interquartile interval