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Table 5 Differential positive and negative effects experienced by participants

From: Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

  Full sample Males Females
Placebo Multi Placebo Multi Placebo Multi
n = 59 n = 55 n = 28 n = 24 n =31 n = 31
Positive experience 50.8% 60.0% 64.3% 62.5% 38.7% 58.1%
Mental/Cognitive Domain       
General Mental Benefit 8.5% 9.1% 7.1% 0.0% 9.7% 16.1%
Improved Concentration, Attention &/or Memory 8.5% 9.1% 10.7% 20.8% 6.5% 0.0%
Increased Calmness or Relaxation 20.3% 14.5% 21.4% 25.0% 19.4% 6.5%
Better Mood & Emotional State 8.5% 23.6% * 7.1% 16.7% 9.7% 29.0% #
Physical Domain       
General Physical Benefit 8.5% 5.5% 14.3% 12.5% 3.2% 0.0%
Improved Sleep 5.1% 15.5% # 3.6% 8.3% 6.5% 19.4%
More Energetic &/or Alert 11.9% 29.1% ** 17.9% 29.2% 6.5% 29.0% ***
Better Health &/or Immunity 6.8% 10.9% 10.7% 8.3% 3.2% 12.9%
Dermatological Benefit 1.7% 0.0% 3.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Increased/Better Appetite 1.7% 1.8% 3.6% 4.2% 0.0% 0.0%
Negative experience 28.8% 30.9% 25.0% 25.0% 32.3% 35.5%
Mental/Cognitive Domain       
Impaired Concentration/Attention 5.1% 3.6% 3.6% 4.2% 6.5% 3.2%
Stressed or Anxious 1.7% 3.6% 0.0% 0.0% 3.2% 6.5%
More Moody and Emotional 1.7% 5.5% 3.6% 0.0% 0.0% 9.7%
Physical Domain       
Impaired Sleep 1.7% 1.8% 3.6% 0.0% 0.0% 3.2%
More Fatigued &/or Drowsy 6.8% 5.5% 7.1% 8.3% 6.5% 3.2%
Poorer Health &/or Immunity 1.7% 1.8% 3.6% 0.0% 0.0% 3.2%
Upper Gastrointestinal complaint 1.7% 9.1% 0.0% 8.3% 3.2% 9.7%
Indigestion or Nausea 1.7% 3.6% 0.0% 4.2% 3.2% 3.2%
Dermatological Complaint 1.7% 1.8% 0.0% 4.2% 3.2% 0.0%
Gynaecological Effect 0.0% 3.6% - - 0.0% 6.5%
Weight Gain 3.4% 1.8% 3.6% 0.0% 3.2% 3.2%
  1. 2 (1)= 4.921, p = 0.027; ** χ2 (1)= 5.245, p = 0.022; *** χ2 (1) = 5.415, p = 0.020 # p = 0.05-0.10 (trend).