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Table 2 Summary of recent biomarker studies on various food/dietary components

From: Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

Food/Dietary component Reference Biomarker (Sample size) Biological sample Analytic procedurea Biomarker classb Validityc,d (p value) Reproducibilityd (p value) Sensitivitye
Caffeine Crews et al.(2001) Caffeine (137X) (8 adults) Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term    
   Caffeine Metabolite: 17X Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term R2=0.58*   
   Caffeine Metabolite : 17U Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term R2=0.87*   
   Caffeine Metabolite: 1X Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term R2=0.78*   
   Caffeine Metabolite: AFMU Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term    
Citrus Heinzmann et al. (2010) Proline Betaine (8 adults) Urine (24 hr) 1H NMR Short term R2=0.40 (<0.0001)   +
  Lloyd et al. (2011) Proline betaine (23 adults) Urine (fasting) FT-ICR-MS Short term?    
   Hesperidin Urine (fasting) FT-ICR-MS     
   Nariruin Urine (fasting) FT-ICR-MS     
Cocoa Llorach et al. (2009) Urinary metabolome (10 adults) Urine HPLC-q-TOF Short term    
Garlic Verhagen et al.(2001) S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) (101 male adults) Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term    
Wine Zamora-Ros et al. (2006) Total resveratrol metabolites (TRMs) (20 adults) Urine (fasting) LC-MS/MS Short term    +
   TRMs Plasma (fasting) LC-MS/MS Short term    
  Zamora-Ros et al. (2009) Resveratrol metabolites (1,000 adults) Urine (fasting) LC-MS/MS Short term r=0.895 (p<0.001)   +
  Rotches-Ribalta et al. (2012) Resveratrol metabolites (10 males) Blood & Urine LC-ESI-MS/MS Short term    
  1. aHPLC, High-performance liquid chromatography; 1H NMR, 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; FT-ICR-MS, Linear trap quadrupole-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy ultra; HPLC-q-TOF, High-performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry; GC-MS, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LC-MS/MS, Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LC-ESI-MS/MS Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry.
  2. bShort term: hours/days; Medium term: weeks/months; Long term: months/years.
  3. cResults of comparsion of biomarkers to an appropriate dietary assessment method.
  4. dRepresentative values from the literature.
  5. eBiomarker is able to detect changes in intake over time or distinguish high from low consumers; + = sensitivity has been demonstrated.
  6. *Significance not reported.