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Table 1 Summary of recent biomarker studies related to macronutrient foods

From: Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

Food/Dietary componenta Reference Biomarkerb (Sample size) Biological sample Analytic procedurec Biomarker classd Validitye,f (p value) Reproductivityf (p value) Sensitivityg
Cane Sugar/HFCS Cook et al. (2009) 13C in blood glucose (5 young adults) Plasma GC-IRMS Short term R2=0.90 (<0.001)   
  Yeung et al. (2010) 13C (186 older adults) Serum (fasting) CF-SIRMS   r=0.87 (0.01)   
  Davy et al. (2011) 13C (60 adults) Fingerstick NA-SIMS Medium term? r=0.365 (<0.05) r=0.873 (<0.001)  
Sugar Tasevska et al. (2005) Sucrose & Fructose (12 male adults; 13 adults) Urine (24 hr) Enzymatic Short term R2= 0.888 (<0.001) ICC 0.67i +
  Kuhnle et al. (2008) Sucrose (7 adults) Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term    
    Urine (24 hr) LC-MS Short term    
Whole-Grain Wheat/Rye Linko-Parvinen et al. (2007) Enterolactone (ENL) (15 adults) Plasma (fasting) TR-FIA Short term    
   Total Alkylreoscinol (AR) concentration Plasma (fasting) GC-MS Short term R2=0.939 (<0.05)   
   Erythrocyte AR RBC (fasting) GC-MS Medium term? R2=0.854 (<0.05)   
  Aurbertin-Leheudre et al. (2008) Total AR concentration (56 women) Plasma (fasting) GC-MS   r=0.406 (0.003)   
   DHBA Urine (24 hr) HPLC   r= 0.359 (0.008)   
   DHPPA Urine (24 hr) HPLC   r= 0.402 (0.003)   
  Landberg et al. (2008, 2009, 2009) DHBA, DHPPA (16 adults) Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term    
   Total AR concentration (30 adults; 17 males with prostate cancer) Plasma (fasting) GC-MS Short term r= 0.58 (<0.001) ICC 0.90, 0.88i +
  Aderson et al. (2011) Total AR concentration (51 adults) Plasma (fasting) GC-MS Medium term r=0.53 (<0.001) r=0.38 (P<0.001)  
Total Fat King et al. (2006) PUFA, MUFA, SFA RBC (fasting) 1D-TLC Long term?    +
   (66 postmenopausal females) Plasma (fasting) 1D-TLC     +
Fatty Acids Baylin et al. (2002) PUFA (503 older Costa Ricans) Adipsoe tissue (fasting) GLC   r=0.58 (<0.001)   
   Trans-fatty acids Adipose tissue (fasting) GLC   r=0.43 (<0.001)   
  Poppitt et al. (2005) SFA, MUFA, PUFA RBC (fasting) GC     
   (20 male adults)       
  Fuhrman et al. (2006) Oleic acid (204 female adults) RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.45; 0.47* (<0.001)   
   Total PUFA RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.17h; 0.39* (<0.001)   
   Total MUFA RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.40; 0.48*   
   Total SFA RBC (fasting) GC   r=0.14hi; 0.07*hi   
  Thiebaut et al. (2009) SFA, MUFA, PUFA (1,114 female adults) Serum (fasting) GC Long term r=0.16–0.29 (<0.0001)   
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) Baylin et al. (2005) Alpha-linolenic acid & Linoleic acid Adipose tissue GLC Long term r=0.51; 0.52** (<0.05)   
   (200 Costa Rican adults) Blood (fasting) GLC Long term r=0.38; 0.43** (<0.05)   
    Plasma (fasting) GLC Long term r=0.39; 0.41** (<0.05)   
  Fuhrman et al. (2006) Linoleic acid (204 female adults) RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.23; 0.39* (<0.05; <0.001)   
   Alpha-linolenic acid RBC (fasting) GC   r=0.14hi, 0.07*hi   
EPA, DHA Kuriki et al. (2003) EPA (15 male, 79 female Japanese dietitians) Plasma (fasting) GC   r=0.57; 0.60*** (<0.05; <0.001)   
   DHA Plasma (fasting) GC   r=0.57; 0.30** (<0.05; <0.01)   
  Harris et al. (2004) Omega-3 Index (EPA+DHA) (57 adults) Plasma (fasting) GC Long term r=0.91(<0.001)   +
    Blood (fasting) GC Long term r=0.91 (<0.001)   +
  O’Brien et al (2009) 15N-EPA (496 adult Eskimos) Blood CF-IRMS   r=0.47(<0.001)   
   15N-DHA Blood CF-IRMS   r=0.46 (<0.001)   
  Nash et al. (2009) 15N-EPA (144 adult Eskimos) Hair CF-IRMS Medium term r=0.83 (0.001)   
   15N-DHA Hair CF-IRMS Medium term r=0.84 (<0.001)   
Olive Oil Micro-Casas et al. (2002) Tyrosol (7 adults) Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term    
   Hydroxytyrosol Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term    
Protein Bingham (2003) Urine Nitrogen (8 adults) Urine (24 hr) Kjeldahl Short term R2=0.99i   
Animal Protein Petzke & Lemke (2009) 13C (14 young adult females) Hair GC/C/IRMS Medium term-Long term? R2=0.44 (0.005)   
   15N Hair GC/C/IRMS Medium term- Long term? R2=0.17h (0.069)   
  Cross et al. (2011) Creatinine (17 male adults) Urine (24 hr) Kinetic assay Short term Ptrend(<0.0001)   +?
   Taurine Urine (24 hr) IEC Short term? Ptrend(<0.0001)   +?
   1-methylhistidine Urine (24 hr) IEC Short term? Ptrend(<0.0001)   +
   3-methylhistidine Urine (24 hr) IEC Short term Ptrend(<0.0001)   +
  1. aHFCS, High fructose corn syrup; EPA, Eicosapentaenoic Acid; DHA, Docosahexaenoic Acid.
  2. bDHBA, 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid; DHPPA, 3-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)-Propanoic Acid; PUFA, Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid; MUFA, Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acid; SFA, Saturated Fatty Acid; RBC, Red Blood Cell.
  3. cGC-IRMS, gas chromatography isotope ratio mass; CF-SIRMS, Continuous-flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry; NA-SIMS, Natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry; GC-MS, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LC-MS, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; TR-FIA, Time-resolved fluroimmunoassay; HPLC, High-performance liquid chromatography; 1D-TLC, One-dimensional thin-layer chromatography; GLC, Gas liquid chromatography; GC, Gas chromatography; CF-IRMS, Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry; GC/C/IRMS, Gas chromatography/combustion/ isotope ratio mass spectrometry; IEC, Ion-exchange chromatography.
  4. dShort term: hours/days; Medium term: weeks/months; Long term: months/years.
  5. eResults of comparsion of biomarkers to an appropriate dietary assessment method.
  6. fRepresentative values from the literature.
  7. gBiomarker is able to detect changes over time or distinguish high from low consumers; + = sensitivity has been demonstrated.
  8. hCorrelation not significant.
  9. iSignificance not reported.
  10. *Values presented are pre, post menopausal, respectively.
  11. **Values presented are alpha-linolenic, linoleic acid, respectively.
  12. ***Values presented are male, female, respectively.