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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and clinical measurements for study participants by treatment group

From: Effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

  Caffeinated Coffee Decaffeinated Coffee No Coffee
  (N = 16) (N = 14) (N = 15)
Age (years) 38.7 (7.3) 41.9 (14.6) 41.2 (17.4)
Sex (% female) 11 (68.8) 9 (64.3) 9 (60.0)
Usual caffeinated coffee intake (mL/d) 998 (432) 885 (509) 758 (500)
Ethnicity
(% non-Hispanic white)
10 (62.5) 10 (71.4) 10 (66.7)
Physical activity
(MET-hrs/wk)
28.5 (31.6) 37.1 (35.4) 31.6 (18.0)
Weight (kg) 79.8 (10.7) 86.5 (9.3) 84.6 (11.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.0 (2.3) 29.5 (2.2) 30.0 (2.4)
Waist circumference (cm)    
   Men 97.7 (7.3) 102.5 (7.3) 102.6 (6.3)
   Women 85.2 (10.3) 90.9 (7.8) 88.3 (7.4)
Fat mass (%)a 32.0 (7.5) 33.5 (8.9) 34.3 (6.6)
Glucose (mmol/L)b    
   Fasting 4.8 (0.5) 4.9 (1.0) 4.7 (0.4)
   2-hour 5.8 (1.8) 5.7 (1.6) 6.2 (1.6)
   Area under the curve 13.2 (2.4) 13.3 (3.6) 14.0 (2.1)
Insulin (pmol/L)    
   Fasting 48.4 (33.6) 71.7 (50.9) 52.6 (21.1)
   2-hour 288.7 (132.6) 381.1 (223.3) 366.4 (180.0)
   Area under the curve 574. 2 (317.7) 717.8 (395.7) 675.1 (275.3)
CISI (mmol/L-1*pmol/L-1) 24.2 (15.4) 20.8 (15.7) 17.2 (7.4)
Insulin 30 min/Glucose 30 min 86.7 (59.2) 163.9 (162.4) 118.8 (89.6)
HOMA-IR 1.7 (1.1) 2.5 (2.0) 1.9 (0.8)
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 7.8 (4.8) 7.1 (3.7) 8.6 (3.6)
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 1.2 (1.0) 4.6 (5.8) 2.8 (3.2)
Interleukin-6 (pg/mL) 1.0 (0.5) 2.6 (2.6) 2.0 (1.3)
Fetuin-A (μg/mL) 246.1 (45.3) 270.7 (37.4) 280.2 (56.9)
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.5 (0.4) 1.5 (0.5) 1.5 (0.3)
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.8 (0.9) 2.4 (0.8) 2.3 (0.7)
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.7) 1.0 (0.4) 1.0 (0.5)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 115.0 (10.6) 119.7 (13.8) 121.3 (10.7)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 69.8 (7.6) 71.8 (5.8) 73.2 (8.7)
Heart rate (beats per minute) 68.0 (8.2) 71.3 (10.4) 66.5 (9.3)
  1. Unless otherwise noted, data are means (standard deviation) for continuous variables and number (percentages) for categorical variables.
  2. CISI, composite insulin sensitivity index. HOMA, homeostasis model assessment; IR, insulin resistance, HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein.
  3. a Assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis.
  4. b One participant missing baseline fasting glucose measurement (Decaffeinated coffee treatment group).