Effects of supplementation with chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement on mucosal immune function. These figures show salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentrations (A), saliva flow rates (B), and salivary SIgA secretion rates (C) before and after 4-week placebo (n = 15)/chlorella (n = 15) ingestion. While no difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations and secretion rates between before and after placebo supplementation, these indices significantly increased after chlorella intake compared to baseline. The saliva flow rates did not change after supplementation with placebo or chlorella compared to those before intervention. Data are expressed as mean ± SE. *, significant change compared to before ingestion.