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Table 1 Daily Intake of Energy and Macronutrients of Bahraini students (Boys = 256 & Girls = 240) compared to the Dietary Reference Values (EAR, RNI) for the United Kingdom according to age groups 22

From: Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

  Boys Girls
Macronutrient 7 - 10 Years
(n = 84)
11-14 Years
(n = 97)
15-18 Years
(n = 75)
All ages 7 - 10 Years
(n = 70)
11-14 Years
(n = 91)
15-18 Years
(n = 79)
All ages
  Mean (SD) Standard
(%)1
Mean (SD) Standard
(%)
Mean (SD) Standard
(%)
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Standard
(%)
Mean (SD) Standard
(%)
Mean (SD) Standard
(%)
Mean (SD)
Energy (kcal) 1851.1d (347.9) 1,970 (94.0) 2101.3d (548.1) 2,220 (94.7) 2367d (548.7) 2,755 (85.9) 2097.1b (530.3) 1793.4 (472.7) 1,740 (103.1) 1822.3 (447.7) 1,845 (98.8) 1739.9 (386.3) 2,110 (82.5) 1786.8b (435.8)
Protein (gm) 70.7 d(18.2) 28.3 (249.8) 83.4d (24.2) 42.1 (198.1) 91.4d (23.2) 55.2 (165.6) 81.6b (23.5) 68.8 (19.2) 28.3 (243.1) 68 (19.9) 41.2 (165.0) 67 (20.6) 45.0 (148.9) 67.9b (19.9)
%Kcals Proteins 15.3 (2.5)   15.9 (2.4)   15.5 (2.4)   15.6 (2.5) 15.4 (2.2)   15 (2.8)   15.4 (3)   15.2 (2.7)
Carbohydrate (gm) 241.5d (49.4)   274d (69.4)   319.9d (79)   276.8b (73.3) 229.2 (62)   236.7 (65.3)   230.1 (54.1)   232.4b (60.7)
%Kcals Carbohydrates 52.3c (5.2)   52.5c (5.1)   54 c(5.2)   52.9 (5.2) 51.2 (5)   52 (6)   53 (5.6)   52.1 (5.6)
Fat, total (gm) 68.8d (16.7)   76.6d (25)   82.2d (22.8)   75.7b (22.5) 68.7 (21.8)   68.8 (19.6)   63.3 (16.9)   67b (19.5)
%Kcals Fats 33.3d (3.8)   32.5d (4)   31.1d (3.9)   32.4 (4) 34.3c (4.1)   33.9c (4.3)   32.7c (4)   33.6 (4.2)
Cholesterol (mg) 260.3 (100.6)   300.8 (121.6)   299.8 (167)   287.2b (131.6) 265 (121.2)   243.5 (119.6)   229.3 (123.7)   245.1b (121.7)
Saturated Fat (gm) 22.1 (7.3)   23.1 (8.4)   24.4 (8.6)   23.2a (8.1) 23.1c (9.3)   22.1c (7.3)   19.5c (6.2)   21.6a (7.7)
%kcals Saturated 10.6d (2.3)   9.9d (2.1)   9.3d (2.4)   9.9 (2.3) 11.4d (2.2)   10.9d (2.3)   10.1d (2.2)   10.8 (2.3)
Monounsaturated Fat (gm) 19.9d (5.9)   21.2d (7.5)   24d (7)   21.6b (7) 19 (7.2)   18.9 (6.7)   17.7 (5.7)   18.5b (6.5)
%kcals Monosaturated 9.6 (1.9)   9 (1.9)   9.1 (1.5)   9.3 (1.8) 9.4 (1.8)   9.2 (2)   9.1 (1.9)   9.3 (1.9)
Polyunsaturated Fat (gm) 12.2 (3.5)   14 (5.6)   13.5 (4.3)   13.3b (4.7) 12.4 (4.5)   12.7 (5.4)   11.8 (4.6)   12.3b (4.9)
%kcals Ployunsaturated 5.9d (1.4)   6d (1.7)   5.2d (1.3)   5.7 (1.5) 6.3 (1.9)   6.2 (1.9)   6.1 (1.9)   6.2 (1.9)
MFA 18:1, Oleic (gm) 7.8 (4.1)   7.8 (3.8)   8.6 (4.7)   8.0a (4.2) 7.6 (4.9)   7.1 (3.7)   6.8 (3.5)   7.1a (4)
PFA 18:2, Linoleic (gm) 3.9c (2.1)   4.9c (3.1)   4.6c(2.1)   4.5 (2.6) 4.3 (2.7)   4.3 (2.4)   3.9 (2)   4.2 (2.4)
PFA 18:3, Linolenic (gm) 0.3 (0.1)   0.3 (0.2)   0.3 (0.1)   0.3 (0.1) 0.3 (0.2)   0.3 (0.1)   0.3 (0.1)   0.3 (0.2)
PFA 20:5, EPA (gm) 0 (0)   0 (0)   0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0)   0 (0.1)   0 (0)
PFA 22:6, DHA (gm) 0 (0.1)   0.1 (0.1)   0 (0)   0 (0.1) 0 (0.1)   0 (0.1)   0.1 (0.1)   0.1 (0.1)
Dietary Fiber, total (gm) 12.4c (5.6)   13.6c (5.6)   14.8c (6.1)   13.5a (5.8) 12 (5.4)   12.2 (5.8)   13 (6.5)   12.4a (5.9)
Sugar, total (gm) 93.2d (31.1)   98d (34.5)   114.6d (43.5)   101.3b (37.3) 87.1 (30.7)   93.8 (40.1)   85.5 (35.6)   89.1b (36.1)
Sucrose (gm) 22.7 (11.3)   22.3 (12.3)   25.2 (15)   23.3 (12.8) 17.5 (9.2)   16.5 (9.7)   18.3 (11.8)   17.4 (10.3)
Lactose (gm) 8.3 (4.5)   6.5 (4.3)   6 (5.9)   6.9b (4.9) 9 (5.6)   6.2 (4)   5.4 (4.7)   6.7b (4.9)
P:S 2 0.6 (0.2)   0.6 (0.2)   0.6 (0.2)   0.6 (0.2) 0.6 (0.2)   0.6 (0.2)   0.6 (0.2)   0.6 (0.2)
  1. 1: Standard Reference Values (UK): EAR for energy and RNI for Protein, (percentage of standard) [22]; 2: Polyunsaturated fat to Saturated fat ratio
  2. a p < 0.05; b p < 0.01 (Mann-Whitney test) Significantly different between genders
  3. c p < 0.05, d p < 0.01 Significantly different across age groups