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Table 4 Mean serum lipid concentrations in the SP2 study (N = 3000) according to level of coffee consumption

From: Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study

   Concentration (geometric mean (95% CI))  
  Fasting lipids, mmol/L Never or <1 cup/week 1 cup/week to <1 cup/day 1-2 cups/day ≥3 cups/day Percentage difference between extreme groups P for trend
   n = 891 n = 358 n = 1509 n = 242   
Model 1 HDL-cholesterol 1.32 (1.30 - 1.34) 1.33 (1.30 - 1.36) 1.33 (1.32 - 1.35) 1.27 (1.23 - 1.31) -3.79% 0.057
  LDL-cholesterol 3.19 (3.13 - 3.24) 3.14 (3.06 - 3.22) 3.26 (3.22 - 3.30) 3.31 (3.21 - 3.40) 3.76% 0.004
  Triglycerides 1.14 (1.10 - 1.18) 1.17 (1.11 - 1.23) 1.16 (1.13 - 1.19) 1.25 (1.18 - 1.34) 9.65% 0.020
  Total cholesterol 5.14 (5.09 - 5.20) 5.11 (5.02 - 5.20) 5.24 (5.19 - 5.29) 5.27 (5.16 - 5.38) 2.53% 0.005
Model 2‡ ‡ HDL-cholesterol 1.37 (1.34-1.41) 1.39 (1.34-1.43) 1.40 (1.37-1.43) 1.35 (1.31-1.40) -1.46% 0.809
  LDL-cholesterol 3.05 (2.95-3.15) 3.00 (2.88-3.11) 3.10 (3.01-3.19) 3.11 (2.98-3.23) 1.97% 0.098
  Triglycerides 1.23 (1.16-1.30) 1.24 (1.16-1.33) 1.21 (1.14-1.28) 1.26 (1.17-1.36) 2.44% 0.762
  Total cholesterol 5.13 (5.03-5.24) 5.09 (4.96-5.21) 5.19 (5.09-5.29) 5.18 (5.04-5.32) 0.97% 0.163
Model 3‡ ‡ ‡ HDL-cholesterol 1.38 (1.34-1.42) 1.39 (1.35-1.43) 1.40 (1.37-1.44) 1.36 (1.31-1.41) -1.19% 0.976
  LDL-cholesterol 3.05 (2.96-3.15) 3.00 (2.88-3.11) 3.10 (3.01-3.19) 3.10 (2.98-3.23) 1.69% 0.120
  Triglycerides 1.22 (1.15-1.30) 1.24 (1.15-1.33) 1.20 (1.14-1.27) 1.24 (1.15-1.35) 1.52% 0.961
  Total cholesterol 5.14 (5.03-5.25) 5.09 (4.96-5.22) 5.20 (5.10-5.30) 5.18 (5.04-5.32) 0.78% 0.183
  1. ‡ Model 1: Adjustment for age (yr), gender (male, female), ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, Indian)
  2. ‡ ‡ Model 2: Adjustment for age (yr), gender (male, female), ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, Indian), BMI (kg/m2), smoking (non-smoker, ex-smoker, smoker <10cigarettes/day, smoker ≥10cigarettes/day), education (primary and below, secondary, polytechnic and diploma, university), physical activity (kcal/week), hypertension (yes, no), alcohol (non-drinker, <1serving/day, ≥ 1 serving day)
  3. ‡ ‡ ‡ Model 3: Adjustment for age (yr), gender (male, female), ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, Indian), BMI (kg/m2), smoking (non-smoker, ex-smoker, smoker <10cigarettes/day, smoker ≥10cigarettes/day), education (primary and below, secondary, polytechnic and diploma, university), physical activity (kcal/week), hypertension (yes, no), alcohol (non-drinker, <1serving/day, ≥ 1 serving day), energy intake (kcal), fiber (g/day/1000 kcal), cholesterol (mg/day/1000 kcal), PUFA (% of total energy), MUFA (% of total energy), SFA (% of total energy)