Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Characteristics of the Singapore Prospective Study (SP2) (N = 3000) by coffee consumption categories.

From: Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study

Characteristic Total Never or <1 cup/week <1cup/week to <1 cup/day 1-2 cups/day ≥3 cups/day P value
   n = 891 n = 358 n = 1509 n = 242  
Age (y) 47.5 ± 11.2 45.3 ± 11.5 45.9 ± 11.4 49.0 ± 10.9 48.5 ± 10.1 <0.001
Gender       
   Male 1348 (44.9) 327 (36.7) 159 (44.4) 689 (45.7) 173 (71.5)  
   Female 1652 (55.1) 564 (63.3) 199 (55.6) 820 (54.3) 69 (28.5) <0.001
Ethnicity       
   Chinese 2058 (68.6) 575 (64.5) 254 (70.9) 1063 (70.4) 166 (68.6)  
   Malay 531 (17.7) 183 (20.5) 62 (17.3) 243 (16.1) 43 (17.8)  
   Indian 411 (13.7) 133 (14.9) 42 (11.7) 203 (13.5) 33 (13.6) 0.074
BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 4.3 23.4 ± 4.3 23.4 ± 4.6 23.7 ± 4.4 23.9 ± 3.9 0.159
Education       
   Primary school and below 705 (23.5) 163 (18.3) 75 (20.9) 395 (26.2) 72 (29.8)  
   Secondary school 1295 (43.2) 378 (42.4) 131 (36.6) 681 (45.1) 105 (43.4)  
   Polytechnic and diploma 518 (17.3) 189 (21.2) 67 (18.7) 225 (14.9) 37 (15.3)  
   University 482 (16.1) 161 (18.1) 85 (23.7) 208 (13.8) 28 (11.6) <0.001
Physical Activity (kcal/week) 523.1 (268.9-952.7) 522.3 (251.5-987.2) 481.0 (268.0-826.4) 530.8 (277.0-937.2) 550.5 (273.3-1108.2) 0.141
Energy intake (kcal) 1829.8 (1443.9-2336.6) 1788.1 (1386.2-2278.7) 1763.8 (1387.4-2324.7) 1824.6 (1465.2-2304.1) 2132.6 (1666.6-2647.2) <0.001
Fiber intake (g/1000 kcal) 10.5 (9.1-12.3) 10.9 (9.3-12.8) 10.6 (9.3-12.4) 10.5 (9.1-12.2) 9.1 (7.9-10.8) <0.001
Cholesterol intake (mg/1000 kcal) 115.4 (90.2-141.7) 115.2 (88.8-142.7) 110.9 (88.1-140.6) 116.2 (91.0-140.3) 119.6 (93.0-149.3) 0.171
PUFA intake (% of energy) 5.3 (4.2-7.2) 5.5 (4.2-7.6) 5.3 (4.2-7.1) 5.3 (4.2-7.2) 4.8 (3.9-6.4) 0.001
MUFA intake (% of energy) 9.7 ± 2.6 9.8 ± 2.7 9.8 ± 2.5 9.6 ± 2.6 9.5 ± 2.5 0.001
SFA intake (% of energy) 11.1 ± 2.8 11.1 ± 3.0 10.9 ± 2.6 11.1 ± 2.8 11.6 ± 2.8 <0.001
Cigarette Smoking       
   Never smoker 2393 (79.8) 782 (87.8) 298 (83.2) 1184 (78.5) 129 (53.3)  
   Past smoker 240 (8.0) 47 (5.3) 24 (6.7) 139 (9.2) 30 (12.4)  
   Current (<10 cigarettes/day) 115 (3.8) 26 (2.9) 15 (4.2) 62 (4.1) 12 (5.0)  
   Current (≥10 cigarettes/day) 252 (8.4) 36 (4.0) 21 (5.9) 124 (8.2) 71 (29.3) <0.001
Alcohol Consumption       
   non-drinker 2457 (81.9) 755 (84.7) 289 (80.7) 1227 (81.3) 186 (76.9)  
   <1 serving/day 479 (16.0) 128 (14.4) 62 (17.3) 241 (16) 48 (19.8)  
   ≥1 serving/day 64 (2.1) 8 (0.9) 7 (2.0) 41 (2.7) 8 (3.3) 0.012
  1. Abbreviations: PUFA - polyunsaturated fatty acids, MUFA - monounsaturated fatty acids, SAF - saturated fatty acids
  2. Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables.
  3. The Kruskal-Wallis test (for non-normally distributed continuous variables), analysis of covariance (for normally distributed continuous variables) or the chi-squared test (for categorical variables) was used to compare participant characteristics across coffee consumption categories.