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Table 4 Change in Bone Resorption Markers in Response to a More Alkaline Diet

From: Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality

1st Author year n Subjects Comparison Design Change NAE Marker Fasting Control Alkaline Percent change of marker
Kerstetter 1999 16 Women 20 - 40 years High vs medium pro RCO   NTX/Cr yes 48.2 (29) 43.5 (28) -10*
Roughead 2003 13 Postmeno women High to low meat RCO -19 NTX/Cr no 3.77 (0.33)* 3.88 (0.33)* 11
Dawson- Hughes 2004 32 Adults > 50 yrs High vs low pro RCT   NTX/Cr no 130 (71) 198 (100) 52*
Roughead 2005 15 Postmeno women Milk to soy pro RCO -11 NTX/Cr no 3.08 (0.24)* 3.20 (0.24)* 15
Sakhaee 2005 18 Postmeno women Kcitrate RCO 0 NTx/Cr no 33 (13) 33 (14) 0.0
Sakhaee 2005 18 Postmeno women Kcitrate RCO 0 sCTX yes 0.54 (0.32) 0.49 (0.29) -9.3
Spence 2005 15 Postmeno women Milk to soy pro RCO -2 NTX/Cr no 55.6 (29.0) 48 (22.6) -14
Kerstetter 2006 20 Women Amt of soy RCO -29 NTx/Cr yes 52 (27) 48 (13) -7.7
Kerstetter 2006 20 Women Soy versus meat RCO -24 NTx/Cr yes 64 (36) 48 (13) -25
Kerstetter 2006 20 Women Amt of meat RCO -18 NTx/Cr yes 51 (36) 64 (36) 25
Ceglia 2008 19 Adults > 50 yrs KHCO3 (high pro) RCT -57 NTX/Cr no 40.4 (19.1) 35.1 (7.0) -13
MacDonald 2008 46 Postmeno women Kcitrate (high) RCT   DPD/Cr yes 8.1 (3.4) 7.4 (2.0) -8.6
MacDonald 2008 44 Postmeno women Kcitrate (low) RCT   DPD/Cr yes 7.5 (2.4) 7.1 (2.1) -5.3
MacDonald 2008 50 Postmeno women Ft & veg RCT   DPD/Cr yes 7.2 (2.3) 7.1 (2.0) -1.4
MacDonald 2008 50 Postmeno women Kcitrate (high) RCT   sCTX no 0.21 (0.11) 0.20 (0.11) -4.3
MacDonald 2008 51 Postmeno women Kcitrate (low) RCT   sCTX no 0.23 (0.11) 0.22 (0.10) -4.3
MacDonald 2008 54 Postmeno women Ft & veg RCT   sCTX no 0.20 (0.13) 0.21 (0.11) 5.0
Dawson- Hughes 2009 162 Adults > 50 yrs K or Na HCO3 RCT -35 NTX/Cr no 38.8 (17.2) 33.7 (13.9) -13
Hunt 2009 13 Postmeno women high to low pro (low Ca) RCO -24 DPD/Cr yes 2.3 (0.2)* 2.4 (0.2)* 15*
Hunt 2009 14 Postmeno women high to low pro (High Ca) RCO -22 DPD/Cr yes 2.2 (0.2)* 2.3 (0.2)* 12*
Karp 2009 12 Women 20 - 30 years Kcitrate RCO   NTX/Cr no 23 (12) 16 (10)* -28*
  1. * p < 0.05
  2. DPD/Cr = urine deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio; NTX/Cr = urine N-telopeptide to creatinine ratio; RCT = random control trial; RCO = random cross-over study; pro = protein, sCTX = serum C-telopeptide, * ln transformed data