Skip to main content

Table 2 Randomized intervention Human Studies that Met the Inclusion Criteria

From: Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality

      Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment
Study Design Exposures Exposure quantified Outcomes Sequence generation Allocation concealment Incomplete outcome data Selective
outcome reporting
Patton [53] RCO Phosphate salt mg P Calcium balance low High low low
Breslau [20] RCO Protein foods NAE Urine calcium & absorption low High low Low
Whybro* [54] RCO Phosphate salt mmol P Urine calcium part 1 = low High low low
Dahl [55] RCO Lentils NAE Calcium balance low High low low
Kerstetter [56] RCO Amount of protein g protein Urine calcium, absorption & BTM low High low low
Buclin [14] RCO Acid diet No Urine calcium & BTM low High low low
Roughead [57] RCO Amount of protein NAE Calcium balance & BTM low High low low
Dawson-Hughes [58] RCT Amount of protein g protein Urine calcium & BTM low High low low
Roughead [59] RCO Meat/soy NAE Calcium balance & BTM low High low low
Sakhaee [60] RCO K+citrate K+citrate Urine calcium, absorption & BTM low High low low
Spence [61] RCO Soy vs. milk protein NAE Calcium balance & BTM low High low low
Kerstetter [62] RCO Amount of protein NAE Calcium balance low High low low
Kemi [66] RCO Phosphate salt mg P Urine calcium low High low low
Kerstetter [67] RCO Amount & type of protein NAE Calcium balance & BTM low High low low
Hunt [69] RCO Protein g protein, mg Ca Calcium balance & BTM low High low low
Ceglia* [70] RCT K+bicarbonate NAE Urine calcium and absorption low High low low
Dawson-Hughes [70] RCT K+bicarbonate NAE Urine calcium & BTM low High low low
Frassetto [63] RCT K+bicarbonate K+bicarbonate Urine calcium low High low low
Gettman [64] RCO Cranberry juice NAE Urine calcium low High low low
Karp [72] RCO K+citrate K+citrate Urine calcium & BTM low High low low
Jehle [65] RCT K+citrate NAE BMD & BTM low High low High
MacDonald [79] RCT K+citrate/fruit & veg NEAP BMD & BTM low low low low
  1. BMD = bone mineral density; BTM = bone turnover markers; ca = calcium, K+ = potassium; mg = milligram; mmol = millimole; NAE = Net acid excretion; NEAP =, net endogenous acid production; P = phosphate; RCO = random cross-over study; RCT = random control trial; veg = vegetables; * = only the randomized portions of this study fit the inclusion criteria