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Table 1 HILL'S CRITERIA OF CAUSATION

From: Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality

Criteria Description
TEMPORALITY An exposure must be measured prior the disease, for it to be clear which variable might be the cause and which variable might be the result.
STRENGTH This criterion requires that the putative cause of an illness be of sufficient strength of association to cause disease.
BIOLOGICAL GRADIENT This criterion requires that when the dose of an exposure is increased, the risk of the outcome should also increase
PLAUSIBILITY This criterion requires that a theory fit with current biological knowledge.
CONSISTENCY This criterion requires consistent evidence from a variety of study designs to support a causal relationship
EXPERIMENT This criterion requires that actual experiments be conducted to determine whether the frequency of a disease is altered by an exposure.