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Table 3 Natural killer cell counts and activity (NKCA) before and after two-months of cereal ingestion (mean ± SD)*

From: Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

Variable Pre-study Post-study Treatment interaction p-value
NK lymphocytes (109/L)    0.578
   Low 0.39 ± 0.28 0.23 ± 0.13  
   Medium 0.49 ± 0.34 0.36 ± 0.20  
   High 0.35 ± 0.18 0.29 ± 0.14  
NKCA 40:1 E:T (% lysis)    0.448
   Low 44.7 ± 16.8 48.8 ± 16.2  
   Medium 47.6 ± 14.1 47.1 ± 16.8  
   High 48.4 ± 16.3 48.6 ± 16.3  
NKCA 20:1 E:T (% lysis)    0.349
   Low 33.2 ± 16.3 37.0 ± 16.8  
   Medium 33.6 ± 12.7 35.5 ± 12.7  
   High 38.1 ± 17.1 36.3 ± 13.2  
  1. * Low (N = 24), medium (N = 21), high (N = 18) level of nutrient fortification of the cereal product. Mean ±SD. E:T = effector-to-target ratio.