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Table 2 Nutrient intake data (mean ± SD, from 3-day food records taken pre-study, and after one-month and two-months ingestion of cereal product (low-, medium, and high fortification) in children

From: Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

Variable Pre-study 1-month 2-months Interaction p-value
Energy (kcal)     
   Low (N = 23) 2313 ± 785 2164 ± 764 2096 ± 851 0.890
   Medium (N = 22) 2246 ± 632 2096 ± 535 2084 ± 564  
   High (N = 19) 2132 ± 429 2178 ± 577 1952 ± 547  
Vit E (α-TE, mg)     
   Low 4.30 ± 2.36 4.41 ± 3.72 4.24 ± 2.45 <0.001
   Medium 4.20 ± 1.84 3.24 ± 1.97 3.63 ± 1.81  
   High 4.28 ± 1.93 13.3 ± 5.08* 13.6 ± 5.11*  
Vit C (mg)     
   Low 82.3 ± 77.4 68.2 ± 64.6 92.9 ± 89.1 0.002
   Medium 79.2 ± 45.8 95.7 ± 86.0 104 ± 95.3  
   High 90.2 ± 64.1 178 ± 75.2* 176 ± 58.5  
Vit A (RE)     
   Low 265 ± 112 239 ± 128 237 ± 144 <0.001
   Medium 289 ± 126 572 ± 147* 583 ± 114*  
   High 266 ± 117 1727 ± 431* 1657 ± 589*  
Thiamin (mg)     
   Low 1.62 ± 0.73 1.06 ± 0.58 1.15 ± 0.50 <0.001
   Medium 1.57 ± 0.66 1.74 ± 0.55* 1.64 ± 0.47*  
   High 1.48 ± 0.35 1.87 ± 0.85* 1.67 ± 0.51*  
Riboflavin (mg)     
   Low 1.90 ± 0.87 1.47 ± 0.78 1.54 ± 0.72 0.002
   Medium 1.90 ± 0.87 2.23 ± 0.80* 2.24 ± 0.77*  
   High 1.73 ± 0.63 2.23 ± 0.50* 2.14 ± 0.64*  
Niacin (mg)     
   Low 19.4 ± 8.4 15.1 ± 9.3 15.4 ± 8.0 0.011
   Medium 19.9 ± 9.3 21.5 ± 7.1* 21.4 ± 6.4*  
   High 17.9 ± 6.4 23.9 ± 11.8* 21.2 ± 7.8*  
Vit B6 (mg)     
   Low 1.36 ± 0.57 1.06 ± 0.51 1.16 ± 0.62 <0.001
   Medium 1.45 ± 0.72 1.82 ± 0.64* 1.88 ± 0.62*  
   High 1.23 ± 0.48 1.98 ± 0.71* 1.81 ± 0.64*  
Vit B12 (mcg)     
   Low 3.34 ± 1.82 3.30 ± 2.32 2.74 ± 1.43 0.002
   Medium 3.80 ± 2.07 5.40 ± 1.79* 5.02 ± 1.70*  
   High 3.22 ± 1.63 5.37 ± 1.71* 4.97 ± 1.82*  
Folate (mcg)     
   Low 288 ± 143 156 ± 79 185 ± 97 <0.001
   Medium 265 ± 121 548 ± 174* 499 ± 167*  
   High 249 ± 89 513 ± 177* 509 ± 151*  
Iron (mg)     
   Low 16.2 ± 6.6 10.4 ± 3.8 10.5 ± 3.2 <0.001
   Medium 16.1 ± 6.8 26.6 ± 6.6* 24.4 ± 7.2*  
   High 14.0 ± 4.2 25.3 ± 7.4* 24.5 ± 6.1*  
Zinc (mg)     
   Low 9.45 ± 5.72 6.41 ± 3.44 6.75 ± 3.00 <0.001
   Medium 9.58 ± 5.87 13.0 ± 4.3* 12.9 ± 3.5*  
   High 7.77 ± 3.36 19.0 ± 5.7* 19.9 ± 6.2*  
  1. * = p < 0.05 compared to the low fortification group.