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Table 3 Mean dietary diversity score (DDS) and percentage adults having consumed an item from the food groups, by Living Standard Measure, age and gender

From: How diverse is the diet of adult South Africans?

  Living Standard Measure Age category Gender RSA
  Low Medium 3: High 16-24 years 25-34 years 35-49 years 50+ years Male Female All
Sample sizec 585 1320 1219 648 779 1001 859 1336 1951 3287
Mean DDS 2.93 [C] 3.84 [B] 4.72 [A] 3.93 3.92 4.09 4.08 4.01 4.02 4.02
(95% CIa) 2.81 - 3.05 3.76 - 3.93 4.64 - 4.80 3.82 - 4.05 3.82 - 4.02 3.98 - 4.19 3.98 - 4.19 3.92 - 4.09 3.95 - 4.10 3.96 - 4.07
Percent of adults consuming at least one item from the following groups (CIa):
1.Cereals/roots/tubers 99b 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 99.7
  99 - 100 - 99 - 100 99 - 100 99 - 100 99 - 100 99 - 100 100 - 100 99 - 100 99.5-99.9
2.Vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables 14** 15 20 13** 16 20 17 15* 18 17
  11 - 16 13 - 17 17 - 22 10 - 16 13 - 18 17 - 22 15 - 20 13 - 17 16 - 20 15 - 18
3.Other fruit- not vitamin A-rich 5*** 18 42 27 25 26 22 26 25 25
  3 - 8 16 - 0.20 39 -45 24 - 30 22 - 29 23 - 29 19 - 25 23 - 28 23 - 27 24 - 27
4.Other Vegetables- not vitamin A-rich 49*** 46 60 46*** 48 55 58 51 53 52
  44 - 54 43 - 49 57 - 63 42 - 50 44 - 52 51 - 58 55 - 62 48 - 54 50 -55 50 - 54
5.Legumes & nuts 24*** 18 15 15 17 19 19 16* 19 18
  21 - 27 15 - 20 13 - 17 12 - 17 14 - 19 17 - 22 17 - 22 14 - 18 17 - 21 16 - 19
6.Fats & oils 22*** 42 43 40 37 38 38 0.36 39 38
  18 - 26 38 - 45 40 - 46 36 - 43 34 - 41 35 - 41 35 - 42 33 - 39 37 - 42 36 - 40
7. Meat/poultry/fish 45*** 78 93 79 81 77 76 81** 76 78
  41 - 49 75 - 80 91 - 94 76 -83 78 - 84 74 - 80 73 - 79 78 - 83 74 - 78 77 - 80
8.Dairy 25*** 48 80 54*** 50 58 62 57 56 56
  22 - 29 45 - 51 77 - 82 50 - 58 46 - 53 55 - 61 59 - 65 55 - 60 53 - 58 55 - 58
9. Eggs 9*** 20 19 20 19 17 15 19 17 18
  7 - 11 18 - 23 17 - 21 17 - 23 16 - 22 15 - 19 13 - 18 17 - 21 15 - 18 16 - 19
  1. a CI = Confidence interval- selected because of data being stratified; b 99 = 99% and 100 = 100% of people consumed from the cereal group; sample size does not always add up to n = 3287 since some questions were not answered or were unknown by participants
  2. [A]; [B] and [C]: different symbols indicate which mean DDS values (comparing the LSM categories) are significantly different, Bonferroni multiple comparison test, p < 0.05. No significant differences between the age categories or the gender categories with regards to DDS value.
  3. *Significant relationship between LSM, age category and gender groups respectively, and whether or not subjects consume food from a specific group, Chi-square test, p < 0.05.
  4. **Significant relationship between LSM, age category and gender groups respectively, and whether or not subjects consume food from a specific group, Chi-square test, p < 0.01.
  5. ***Significant relationship between age category and gender groups respectively, and whether or not subjects consume food from a specific group, Chi-square test, p < 0.0001.