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Table 4 The effect of probiotic treatment on the number of, duration of use, severity and combined load of medications usage

From: Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC®) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

    Effect of probiotic
relative to placebo
(mean; 99% CI)
 
  Probiotic
group
(mean ± SD)
Placebo
group
(mean ± SD)
Ratio Difference Qualitative
inference
Males
Number of medication episodes 0.37 ± 0.72 1.26 ± 1.90 0.29;
0.04 to 0.89
  Very likely ↓
Total days of medications 5.0 ± 20.8 7.2 ± 14.8 0.70;
0.01 to 2.3
  Unclear
Mean # of medications per episode 1.14 ± 0.24 1.29 ± 0.44   -0.15;
-0.57 to 0.24
Possibly trivial
Total # of medications 5.2 ± 20.8 9.1 ± 17.3 0.57;
0.01 to 3.1
  Unclear
Females
Number of medication episodes 1.98 ± 2.63 1.08 ± 1.32 1.83;
0.38 to 6.5
  Possible ↑
Total days of medications 10.7 ± 18.2 5.8 ± 7.9 1.86;
0.31 to 8.5
  Likely ↑
Mean # of medications per episode 1.15 ± 0.24 1.53 ± 0.99   -0.39;
-1.32 to 0.24
Possible ↓
Total # of medications 12.7 ± 20.9 7.4 ± 10.4 1.70;
0.27 to 7.8
  Possible ↑
  1. SD, standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.
  2. Smallest clinically important values for assessing effects qualitatively: ratios, ×/÷1.20; differences, ± 0.5.