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Table 3 The effect of probiotic treatment on the number, duration, severity and combined load of lower respiratory symptoms

From: Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC®) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

    Effect of probiotic
relative to placebo
(mean; 99% CI)
 
  Probiotic
group
(mean ± SD)
Placebo
group
(mean ± SD)
Ratio Difference Qualitative
inference
Males
Number of episodes 0.6 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 1.5 0.55;
0.15 to 1.60
  Likely ↓
Duration (d) 3.5 ± 6.6 7.4 ± 10.3 0.47;
0.10 to 1.43
  Likely ↓
Severity (1-3 scale) 1.23 ± 0.36 1.65 ± 0.57   -0.43
-0.92 to 0.08
Possible ↓
Symptom Load
(severity-days)
4.0 ± 7.2 13.0 ± 19.0 0.31;
0.07 to 0.96
  Very likely ↓
Females
Number of episodes 1.6 ± 2.1 0.5 ± 0.8 3.27;
0.82 to 21
  Likely ↑
Duration (d) 12.2 ± 14.8 5.1 ± 14.7 2.39;
0.45 to 43
  Likely ↑
Severity (1-3 scale) 1.38 ± 0.45 2.07 ± 0.77   -0.69
-1.57 to 0.10
Possible ↓
Symptom Load
(severity-days)
17.1 ± 19.0 7.9 ± 20.7 2.18;
0.41 to 27.23
  Likely ↑
  1. SD, standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.
  2. Smallest clinically important values for assessing effects qualitatively: ratios, ×/÷1.20; differences, ± 0.5.