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Table 2 Mean daily nutrient intakes estimates of the two food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and twelve 24-hour recalls, and correlations between the two dietary methods a

From: Use of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Jamaican adults: validation and correlation with biomarkers

     24-hour recalls vsFFQ 1 24-hour recalls vs. FFQ 2
  Repeat 24- hour recalls FFQ 1 FFQ 2 Unadjusted Energy adjusted Unadjusted Energy adjusted
     r r r r
Total Energy (kcal) 2324 ± 662 2541 ± 559* 2434 ± 644* 0.41   0.45  
Total Carbohydrate (g) 327.9 ± 105.8 361.1 ± 105.9* 340.3 ± 113.2* 0.37 0.35 0.38 0.38
Protein (g) 101.7 ± 29.9 91.4 ± 27.5 103.1 ± 36.5 0.26 0.25* 0.33 0.31
Total Fat (g) 66.2 ± 22.8 64.8 ± 23.1 63.5 ± 32.8* 0.38 0.41 0.37 0.40
   Total Saturated Fat (g) 29.9 ± 11.9 25.5 ± 10.4 28.6 ± 11.8 0.45 0.48 0.42 0.43
   Total MUFA (g) 19.8 ± 10.7 19.3 ± 8.5 21.9 ± 12.6* 0.51 0.59 0.40 0.46
   Total PUFA (g) 12.5 ± 5.1 11.8 ± 4.4 13.3 ± 6.3* 0.33 0.29 0.36 0.38
Linoleic acid 15.7 ± 12.4 16.7 ± 14.2 16.1 ± 14.1 0.43 0.41 0.47 0.44
Linolenic acid 0.69 ± 0.2 0.81 ± 0.3* 0.73 ± 0.3* 0.22 0.35 0.38 0.43
Cholesterol (mg) 268.1 ± 106.1 259.7 ± 117.2 251.2 ± 114.0 0.52 0.53 0.47 0.41
Calcium (mg) 727 ± 218 782 ± 281 783 ± 341 0.44 0.50 0.45 0.45
Iron (g) 21.7 ± 9.3 20.0 ± 5.9 22.1 ± 9.8 0.43 0.42 0.44 0.43
Retinol (ug) 2171 ± 1680 2201 ± 1405 1860 ± 1143 0.21 0.22 0.18 0.17
Beta-carotene (mg) 2271 ± 2420 2410 ± 2680* 1983 ± 2256** 0.35 0.33 0.34 0.34
Vitamin E (mg) 19.7 ± 7.5 15.4 ± 7.8** 16.8 ± 6.1** 0.21 0.20 0.23 0.23
Folate (g) 625.7 ± 242 634 ± 233 590 ± 185 0.56 0.59 0.42 0.45
Total dietary fiber (g) 28.6 ± 11.7 33.7 ± 11.8 30.7 ± 11.7 0.38 0.44 0.43 0.50
Alcohol (g) 2.8 ± 5.4 2.4 ± 2.7 2.6 ± 9.1 0.75 0.79 0.85 0.86
  1. All variables were log-transformed before analysis.
  2. Not significant; all correlations are significant to p≤ 0.001, unless indicated otherwise * p≤ 0.05.
  3. a Energy-adjusted correlations between dietary methods as suggested by Willett (1)
  4. * p≤ 0.05; ** p≤ 0.001 - mean FFQ intake significantly different from repeat recalls.