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Table 2 Intake of nutrients assessed by WDR, CFFQ and AFFQ for young children and adolescents

From: Reproducibility and validity of the food frequency questionnaire for estimating habitual dietary intake in children and adolescents

Nutrients Young children (n = 48) Adolescents (n = 41)
  WDR CFFQ AFFQ WDR CFFQ AFFQ
  Mean SD Mean SD %
difference
Mean SD %
difference
Mean SD Mean SD %
difference
Mean SD %
difference
Energy (kcal/day) 1547 330 1533 438 -1 1757 538 14** 2078 478 1781 588 -14** 2257 643 9
Protein (g/day) 58.2 14.2 57.9 20.4 0 68.5 24.3 18** 75.6 16.9 61.8 24.0 -18** 80.6 24.3 7
Total fat (g/day) 52.8 13.7 51.7 19.1 -2 63.0 24.8 20** 70.2 16.2 54.8 21.9 -22** 74.5 24.3 6
Carbohydrates (g/day) 205.5 49.7 204.8 51.6 0 223.3 57.2 9* 277.6 76.4 255.5 81.9 -8ns 308.5 91.4 11*
Sodium (mg/day) 3004 933 2509 865 -16** 3381 1316 13* 3893 1132 2509 930 -36** 4140 1477 6
Potassium (mg/day) 1924 462 1924 637 0 2365 862 23** 2348 616 2129 1053 -9ns 2897 1114 23**
Calcium (mg/day) 520 160 546 238 5 615 289 18* 540 172 605 479 12ns 702 363 30**
Magnesium (mg/day) 201 56 192 61 -5 236 80 17** 238 64 223 98 -6ns 293 102 23**
Phosphorous (mg/day) 920 225 928 323 1 1074 392 17** 1093 238 1021 488 -7ns 1269 421 16*
Iron (mg/day) 6.3 2.8 5.4 1.8 -13* 7.3 2.5 16* 7.9 2.7 6.1 2.3 -23** 8.8 2.9 11
Zinc (mg/day) 7.1 1.9 7.6 2.5 7 8.3 2.9 17** 9.6 2.5 8.2 3.0 -14** 10.3 3.2 7
Copper (mg/day) 0.93 0.29 0.87 0.25 -6 1.07 0.31 15** 1.16 0.30 1.05 0.36 -10ns 1.35 0.40 16**
Manganese (mg/day) 2.27 0.94 2.34 0.68 3 3.61 1.50 59** 3.02 1.08 2.81 0.89 -7ns 4.24 1.59 40**
Vitamin A (μgRE/day) 490 230 466 174 -5 560 226 14* 602 350 516 280 -14ns 675 274 12
Vitamin D (μg/day) 6.0 4.5 4.9 2.3 -18** 6.2 2.5 3 7.5 4.5 5.8 3.8 -22ns 7.1 2.6 -5
Alpha tocopherol (mg/day) 5.7 1.7 4.9 1.7 -15** 6.9 2.5 20** 7.5 2.4 5.2 1.9 -31** 8.4 2.7 11
Vitamin K (μg/day) 179 134 142 61 -21 190 83 6 223 94 130 71 -42** 221 106 -1
Vitamins B1 (mg/day) 0.79 0.21 0.77 0.26 -2 0.89 0.32 13* 1.00 0.31 0.84 0.35 -16* 1.07 0.33 7
Vitamins B2 (mg/day) 1.04 0.29 1.08 0.41 3 1.40 0.54 35** 1.26 0.33 1.20 0.72 -5ns 1.60 0.66 27**
Niacin (mg/day) 11.3 3.5 11.2 4.4 0 14.3 5.4 27** 14.8 4.0 11.9 4.2 -20** 17.0 5.5 15*
Vitamin B6 (mg/day) 0.91 0.26 0.90 0.33 -1 1.15 0.43 26** 1.20 0.35 1.00 0.40 -17** 1.42 0.49 18*
Vitamin B12 (μg/day) 4.3 3.9 4.8 1.9 12 6.3 2.5 46** 6.5 4.3 5.5 2.5 -15ns 7.3 2.6 12
Folic acid (μg/day) 228 73 215 68 -6 330 122 45** 284 95 220 81 -23** 386 142 36**
Pantothenic acid (mg/day) 5.15 1.38 5.19 1.80 1 6.05 2.17 17** 6.43 1.44 5.89 2.78 -8ns 7.38 2.46 15*
Vitamins C (mg/day) 64 23 60 22 -6 99 38 55** 90 61 78 40 -14ns 132 53 47**
Cholesterol (mg/day) 311 112 280 116 -10 323 126 4 421 119 300 122 -29** 403 147 -4
Dietary fiber (g/day) 11.1 3.3 9.5 3.0 -15** 11.8 4.2 7 13.6 4.5 10.3 3.9 -24** 14.8 4.8 9
Saturated fatty acid (g/day) 17.00 5.00 18.36 7.20 8 21.25 8.97 25** 22.00 6.07 19.53 9.41 -11ns 24.56 9.58 12
Monounsaturated fatty acid (g/day) 19.05 5.28 18.05 6.93 -5 22.14 9.01 16* 26.20 6.39 19.25 7.28 -27** 26.45 8.52 1
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g/day) 10.41 3.44 9.22 3.23 -11* 12.35 4.68 19* 13.66 3.63 9.58 3.45 -30** 14.82 4.64 8
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (mg/day) 1.50 0.58 1.43 0.56 -4 1.98 0.76 32** 2.21 0.77 1.55 0.57 -30** 2.39 0.80 8
n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (mg/day) 8.90 3.02 7.78 2.72 -13* 10.34 3.94 16* 11.42 3.09 8.01 2.91 -30** 12.40 3.87 9
Myristic acid (mg/day) 1339 614 1616 780 21** 1882 983 41** 1649 667 1659 1120 1ns 1986 1058 20*
Oleic acid (mg/day) 17609 4901 16503 6302 -6 20310 8257 15* 23808 5865 17614 6704 -26** 24323 7838 2
Linoleic acid (mg/day) 8652 2986 7520 2619 -13* 10027 3814 16* 11080 3049 7741 2820 -30** 12027 3752 9
Alpha-linolenic acid (mg/day) 1082 397 959 342 -11* 1403 563 30** 1509 510 1008 400 -33** 1717 585 14
Arachidonic acid (mg/day) 136 46 136 56 0 158 62 16* 193 49 144 55 -25** 191 67 -1
Icosapentaenoic acid (mg/day) 112 125 138 90 23 167 76 49** 179 147 154 69 -14ns 189 81 5
Docosahexaenoic acid (mg/day) 227 195 243 151 7 301 135 33** 376 266 284 126 -25* 361 143 -4
  1. †: (the second FFQ - WDR)/WDR (%)
  2. ‡: The data were transformed by natural log to improve normality
  3. WDR: Weighed dietary record
  4. CFFQ: Food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in children
  5. AFFQ: Food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in adults
  6. SD: Standard deviation
  7. Paired t test *p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01