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Table 4 Characteristics of the infants at birth and at the beginning and the end of the study

From: The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight infants

   At birth p * At the beginning p * At the end p **
Age (corrected
gestational age,
weeks)
BM 29.0 ± 1.7 ---- 32.2 ± 2.3 ----- 35.7 ± 1.94 ----
  A 29.6 ± 1.6 0.683 32.8 ± 0.8 0.761 36.2 ± 0.60 0.406
  B 30.2 ± 1.4   32.6 ± 1.22   36.0 ± 1.02  
  C 29.8 ± 1.7   32.9 ± 1.70   36.4 ± 1.53  
Weight (g) BM 1138 ± 173 ---- 1302 ± 173 ---- 1903 ± 223 ----
  A 1196 ± 243 0.589 1452 ± 216 0.259 1967 ± 189 0.000
  B 1220 ± 221   1303 ± 213   1998 ± 146 A-B: 0.002
  C 1313 ± 336   1404 ± 189   2154 ± 202 A-C: 0.002
        B-C: 0.622
Weight (Z-score) BM -0.380 ± 0.918 ---- -1.279 ± 0.984 ---- -1.567 ± 0.738 ----
  A -0.368 ± 0.678 0.445 -1.170 ± 0.407 0.706 -1.501 ± 0.525 0.001
  B -0.646 ± 0.476   -1.408 ± 0.639   -1.513 ± 0.605 A-B: 0.002
  C -0.309 ± 0.819   -1.438 ± 0.970   -1.347 ± 1.091 A-C: 0.001
        B-C: 0.213
Length (cm) BM 37.3 ± 2.2 ---- 39.7 ± 2.6 ---- 44.2 ± 1.52 -----
  A 38.7 ± 2.7 0.750 41.5 ± 1.3 0.192 44.8 ± 0.91 0.715
  B 37.9 ± 3.1   40.4 ± 1.7   44.5 ± 1.24  
  C 38.8 ± 3.5   41.7 ± 2.1   45.6 ± 1.77  
Length (Z-score) BM -0.329 ± 0.903 ---- -0.889 ± 0.972 ---- -0.895 ± 0.845 ----
  A 0.017 ± 1.260 0.386 -0.589 ± 0.272 0.784 -0.738 ± 0.354 0.700
  B -0.619 ± 0.811   -0.807 ± 0.564   -0.537 ± 0.580  
  C -0.215 ± 0.946   -0.642 ± 1.047   -0.441 ± 1.099  
Head circumference
(cm)
BM 26.3 ± 1.3 ---- 28.0 ± 1.5 ---- 31.5 ± 1.28 -----
  A 27.7 ± 1.7 0.615 29.2 ± 1.1 0.418 32.1 ± 0.55 0.077
  B 26.8 ± 1.8   28.5 ± 1.3   32.3 ± 1.18 A-B: 0.033
  C 27.8 ± 3.2   28.7 ± 1.3   32.3 ± 0.75 A-C: 0.097
        B-C: 0.744
Head circumference
(Z-score)
BM -0.297 ± 0.820 ---- -0.907 ± 0.831 ---- -0.654 ± 0.553 ---
  A 0.311 ± 1.375 0.164 -0.689 ± 0.429 0.409 -0.331 ± 0.517 0.203
  B -0.511 ± 0.583   -0.858 ± 0.556   -0.472 ± 0.639  
  C -0.433 ± 0.857   -1.066 ± 0.761   -0.671 ± 0.777  
Fat mass (g) BM ---- ---- 111.1 ± 61.7 ---- 202.4 ± 49.6 ----
  A ---- ---- 140.3 ± 72.5 0.131 193.4 ± 49.6 0.182
  B ----   135.7 ± 50.3   208.1 ± 61.0  
  C ----   129.9 ± 56.5   219.3 ± 52.0  
Fat-free mass (g) BM ---- ---- 1190 ± 204 ---- 1699 ± 206 ----
  A ---- ---- 1311 ± 158 0.925 1773 ± 152 0.007
  B ----   1168 ± 180   1790 ± 127 A-B: 0.009
  C ----   1274 ± 151   1915 ± 199 A-C: 0.044
        B-C: 0.277
Body mass index
(kg/m 2 )
BM 8.16 ± 0.53 ---- 8.26 ± 0.69 ---- 16.0 ± 0.74 ----
  A 7.61 ± 1.00 0.195 8.41 ± 1.06 0.424 16.8 ± 1.18 0.472
  B 8.37 ± 0.78   7.93 ± 0.80   15.6 ± 0.80  
  C 8.49 ± 1.25   8.04 ± 0.78   15.2 ± 1.57  
  1. Number of patients in each group: 8 in A, 12 in B and 12 in C.
  2. Data are presented as the means ± SD
  3. * ONEWAY, with the factor group
  4. ** UNIANOVA, with the factor group and adjusted for covariates (initial corresponding value and duration of the intervention). If the p-value of the group < 0.1, pair comparisons have been performed.