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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for joint effect of energy-adjusted vitamin E and folate intake on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in a case-control study in Iran1,2

From: Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran

  Folate
  Model 13 Model 24
  Low Medium High Low Medium High
Vitamin E       
Low Number 1.00 (32) 0.51 (0.19-0.72) (15) 0.44 (0.13-0.90) (4) 1.00 0.48 (0.11-0.75) 0.48 (0.11-0.75)
Medium Number 0.63 (0.09-0.86) (14) 0.08 (0.01-0.47) (23) 0.07 (0.01-0.69) (11) 0.52 (0.09-0.81) 0.05 (0.01-0.39) 0.05 (0.02-0.41)
High Number 0.22 (0.01-0.79) (2) 0.05 (0.00-0.76) (9) 0.01 (0.00-0.79) (33) 0.19 (0.05-0.66) 0.04 (0.01-0.42) 0.02 (0.00-0.87)
  1. 1Nutrient intakes are adjusted for energy intake using the residual method [62]
  2. 2P for interaction = 0.03
  3. 3Base model; adjusted for age (years) and sex (male/female)
  4. 4Fully-adjusted model; adjusted for age (years), sex (male/female), gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (yes/no), body mass index (≤24.9, >24.9 kg/m2), smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity and duration (<20, ≥20 pack-years), physical activity (MET) (light/heavy), and education level (illiterate, literate)