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Table 2 Relationship between energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a case-control study in Iran

From: Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran

Macronutrients Tertiles of Intake1OR (95%CI)
  Model 12 Model 23
  Tertile1 5 Tertile2 Tertile3 P-trend 6 Tertile 1 4 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 P-trend 5
Total energy, Kcal Number 1.00 (46) 0.80 (0.24-2.13) (48) 1.11 (0.25-1.98) (49) 0.52 1.00 0.62 (0.03-2.65) 1.23 (0.86-2.14) 0.29
Total fat, g Number 1.00 (46) 1.23 (1.04-2.95) (46) 1.94(1.05-3.28) (51) 0.02 1.00 1.11 (0.80-2.67) 1.48 (1.09-3.04) 0.005
SFA, g Number 1.00 (48) 1.70 (1.21-4.93) (47) 3.52 (1.10-3.89) (48) 0.01 1.00 1.32 (1.20-2.93) 2.88 (1.15-3.08) 0.01
PUFA, g Number 1.00 (47) 2.83 (0.34-3.60) (48) 0.71 (0.13-1.62) (48) 0.98 1.00 1.19 (0.42-2.57) 0.98 (0.31-2.64) 0.14
MUFA, g Number 1.00 (48) 1.39 (0.95 -2.79) (47) 1.39 (0.29-2.16) (48) 0.23 1.00 0.97 (0.15-1.74) 1.19 (0.42-2.75) 0.81
(n-3)fatty acids, g Number 1.00 (48) 0.42 (0.21-0.75) (47) 0.51 (0.08-0.90) (48) 0.01 1.00 0.86 (0.16-0.97) 0.32 (0.07-0.84) <0.001
Dietary fiber, g Number 1.00 (48) 0.72 (0.31-2.18) (47) 0.46 (0.01-0.88) (48) <0.001 1.00 0.71 (0.02-2.03) 0.29 (0.13-0.76) 0.02
Carbohydrate, g Number 1.00 (46) 0.70 (0.31-2.93) (46) 0.17 (0.06-0.92) (51) 0.04 1.00 0.79 (0.32-1.56) 0.22 (0.05-0.84) <0.001
Protein, g Number 1.00 (48) 1.25 (0.59-2.74) (48) 1.61 (1.49-4.13) (47) <0.02 1.00 1.13 (0.54-1.64) 1.93 (0.60-3.18) 0.52
Cholesterol, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.92 (0.09-1.39) (49) 3.71(1.49-2.60) (47) <0.001 1.00 0.68 (0.22-1.73) 1.53 (1.41-4.13) <0.001
Vegetable Oil, g 6 Number 1.00 (47) 0.59 (0.21-3.58) (47) 0.95 (0.16-2.24) (49) 0.87 1.00 1.25 (0.35-1.93) 1.44 (0.08-2.23) 0.61
Discretionary calorie, % total energy intake 7 Number 1.00 (48) 1.68 (1.07-3.95) (48) 2.33(1.58-2.90) (47) <0.001 1.00 1.17 (1.02-2.65) 1.51 (1.06-3.84) 0.002
  1. OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval; SFA: Saturated fatty acid; PUFA: Poly unsaturated fatty acid; MUFA: Mono unsaturated fatty acid
  2. 1Nutrient intakes are adjusted for energy intake using the residual method [56]
  3. 2Base model; adjusted for age (years) and sex (male/female)
  4. 3Fully-adjusted model; adjusted for age (years), sex (male/female), gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (yes/no), body mass index (≤24.9, >24.9 kg/m2), smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity and duration (<20, ≥20 pack-years), physical activity (MET) (light/heavy), and education level (illiterate, literate)
  5. 4Reference category
  6. 5The P-value for trend was calculated using the linear regression coefficient for the tertiles of macronutrient intake
  7. 6Described as fat from vegetable oil, fish, nuts and seeds sources
  8. 7Described as the energy derived from solid fat and added sugar